SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2012
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of Salem Communications Corporation (“Salem” “we” or the “company”) include the company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Description of Business
Salem is a domestic multi-media company with integrated business operations covering radio broadcasting, publishing and the Internet. Our programming is intended for audiences interested in Christian and conservative opinion content and complementary programming. Our primary business is the ownership and operation of radio stations in large metropolitan markets. Upon the close of all announced transactions, we will own and/or operate 99 radio stations across the United States. We also own and operate Salem Radio Network® (“SRN”), SRN News Network (“SNN”), Salem Music Network (“SMN”), Solid Gospel Network (“SGN”), Salem Media Representatives (“SMR”) and Vista Media Representatives (“VMR”). SRN, SNN, SMN and SGN are radio networks that produce and distribute programming, such as talk, news and music segments to radio stations throughout the United States, including Salem owned and operated stations. SMR and VMR sell commercial airtime to national advertisers on radio stations and networks that we own, as well as on independent radio station affiliates.
We also operate Salem Web Network™ (“SWN”), our Internet businesses that provide Christian and conservative-themed content, audio and video streaming, and other resources on the web. SWN’s Internet portals include OnePlace.com, Christianity.com, Crosswalk.com, BibleStudyTools.com, GodTube.com, Townhall.com®, HotAir.com, WorshipHouseMedia.com, SermonSpice.com, GodVine.com and Jesus.org. SWN’s content is also accessible through our radio station websites that feature content of interest to local listeners throughout the United States. SWN operates our radio station websites and Salem Consumer Products, a website offering books, DVD’s and editorial content developed by many of our on-air radio personalities that are available for purchase. The revenues generated from this segment are reported as Internet revenue on our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
We also operate Salem Publishing™, that produces and distributes Christian and conservative opinion print magazines. Salem Publishing includes Xulon Press™, a print-on-demand self-publishing service for Christian authors. The revenues generated from this segment are reported as publishing revenue on our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid debt instruments, purchased with an initial maturity of three-months or less, to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of our cash equivalents approximated fair value at each balance sheet date.
Restricted cash includes amounts that are contractually restricted in connection with a security agreement between the company and Traveler’s Insurance.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. An analysis is performed by applying various percentages based on the age of the receivable and other subjective and historical analysis. A considerable amount of judgment is required in assessing the likelihood of ultimate realization of these receivables including the current creditworthiness of each customer. If the financial condition of our customers was to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required.
Revenues are recognized when pervasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or the service has been rendered, the price to the customer is fixed or determinable and collection of the arrangement fee is reasonably assured.
Revenues from radio programs and commercial advertising are recognized when the program or advertisement is broadcast. Revenue is reported net of agency commissions, which are calculated based on a stated percentage applied to gross billing. Our customers principally include not-for-profit charitable organizations and commercial advertisers. Revenue from the sale of products and services is recognized when the products are shipped and the services are rendered. Revenues from the sale of advertising in our magazines is recognized upon publication. Revenue from the sale of subscriptions to our publications is recognized over the life of the subscription. Revenue from book sales is recorded when shipment occurs.
We may enter bundled advertising agreements that include spot advertisements on our radio stations, Internet banner placements, print magazine advertisements and booth space at specific events or some combination thereof. The multiple deliverables contained in each agreement are accounted for separately over their respective delivery period provided that they are separate units of accounting. The selling price used for each deliverable is based on vendor specific objective evidence if available or estimated selling price if vendor specific objective evidence is not available. Objective evidence of fair value includes the price charged for each element when it is sold separately. The estimated selling price is the price that we would transact if the deliverable was sold regularly on a standalone basis. Arrangement consideration is allocated at the inception of each arrangement to all deliverables using the relative selling price method. The relative selling price method allocates any discount in the arrangement proportionally to each deliverable on the basis of each deliverable’s selling price.
We may provide advertising time in exchange for certain products, supplies and services. The terms of the exchanges generally permit for the preemption of such broadcast time in favor of advertisers who purchase time on regular terms. We include the value of such exchanges in both net broadcasting revenues and broadcast operating expenses. The value recorded for barter revenues is based upon management’s estimate of the fair value of the products, supplies and services received.
Advertising time that our radio stations exchange for goods and or services is recorded as barter revenue when the advertisement is broadcast at an amount equal to our estimate fair value of what was received. The value of goods or services received in such barter transactions is charged to expense as used. Barter advertising revenue included in broadcast revenue for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012 was approximately $4.6 million, $5.2 million and $5.3 million, respectively, and barter expenses were approximately the same as barter revenue for each period.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
The company has one employee stock compensation plan, described more fully in “Note 11. Stock Option Plan.” We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 718 “Compensation—Stock Compensation.” We record equity awards under the fair value method with share-based compensation measured at the fair value of the award as of the grant date. The exercise price for options is equal to the closing market price of Salem Communications common stock on the date of grant.
We use the straight-line attribution method to recognize share-based compensation costs over the service period of the award. Upon exercise, cancellation, forfeiture, or expiration of stock options, or upon vesting or forfeiture of restricted stock awards, deferred tax assets for options and restricted stock awards with multiple vesting dates are eliminated for each vesting period on a first-in, first-out basis as if each vesting period was a separate award. To calculate the excess tax benefits available as of the date of adoption for use in offsetting future tax shortfalls, we followed the alternative transition method discussed in the FASB ASC Topic 718.
Accounting for Acquisitions and Upgrades of Radio Station and Network Assets
A majority of our radio station acquisitions have consisted primarily of the FCC licenses to broadcast in a particular market. We often do not acquire the existing format, or we change the format upon acquisition when we find it beneficial. As a result, a substantial portion of the purchase price for the assets of a radio station is allocated to the broadcast license. It is our policy generally to retain third-party appraisers to value radio stations, networks, Internet or publishing properties. The allocations assigned to acquired broadcast licenses and other assets are subjective by their nature and require our careful consideration and judgment. We believe the allocations represent appropriate estimates of the fair value of the assets acquired. As part of the valuation and appraisal process, the third-party appraisers prepare reports that assign values to the various asset categories in our financial statements. Our management reviews these reports and determines the reasonableness of the assigned values used to record the acquisition at the close of the transaction.
We undertake projects from time to time to upgrade our radio station technical facilities and/or FCC broadcast licenses. Our policy is to capitalize costs incurred up to the point where the project is complete, at which time we transfer the costs to the appropriate fixed asset and/or intangible asset categories. When the completion of a project is contingent upon FCC or other regulatory approval, we assess the probable future benefit of the asset at the time that it is recorded and monitor it through the FCC or other regulatory approval process. In the event the required approval is not considered probable or the project is abandoned, we write-off the capitalized costs of the project.
Accounting for Discontinued Operations
We regularly review underperforming assets to determine if a sale might be a better way to monetize the assets. When a station, group of stations, or other asset groups are considered for sale, we review the transaction to determine if or when the entity qualifies as a discontinued operation in accordance with the criteria of FASB ASC Topic 205-20 “Discontinued Operations.” This pronouncement specifies that the operations and cash flow of the entity disposed of, or to be sold, have or will be eliminated from the ongoing operations as a result of the disposal and that we will not have significant continuing involvement in the operations after the disposal transaction. For our radio stations, we define a cluster as a group of radio stations operating in the same geographic market, sharing the same building and equipment and managed by a single general manager. The cluster level is the lowest level for which discrete financial information and cash flows are available and the level reviewed by management to analyze operating results. General Managers are compensated based on the results of their cluster as a whole, not the results of any individual radio stations. We have determined that a radio market qualifies for a discontinued operation when management, having the authority to approve the action, commits to a plan to sell the asset (disposal group), the sale is probable, and the sale will result in the exit of a particular geographic market.
Based on operating results that did not meet expectations, we ceased operating Samaritan Fundraising as of December 31, 2011. Samaritan Fundraising, previously included in our Internet operations, was a web-based fundraising products company that operated from a single facility in Fairfax, VA, under the control of one general manager. As a result of our decision to cease operations, the cash flows associated with this entity ceased and we have no continuing involvement in the operations of the entity. We have reported the operating results and net assets of this entity as a discontinued operation for all periods presented.
The markets and entities that we have accounted for as a discontinued operation are explained in more fully in “Note 3 – Significant Transactions.”
Accounting for Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost represents the historical cost of acquiring the asset, including the costs necessarily incurred to bring it to the condition and location necessary for its intended use. For assets constructed for our own use, such as towers and buildings that are discrete projects for which costs are separately accumulated and for which construction takes considerable time, we record capitalized interest. The amount capitalized is the cost that could have been avoided had the asset not been constructed and is based on the average accumulated expenditures incurred over the capitalization period at the weighted average rate applicable to our outstanding variable rate debt. We capitalized interest of $0.1 million during the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Improvements are capitalized when they extend the life of the asset or enhance the quality or ability of the asset to benefit operations. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives as follows:
The carrying value of property, plant and equipment is evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and businesses for indicators of impairment. When indicators of impairment are present and the cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets is less than the carrying value of these assets, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of the assets is recorded, if necessary. No adjustments to the carrying amounts of property, plant and equipment were made during the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2011.
During June 2012, based on changes in managements’ planned usage, land in Covina, CA was classified as held for sale and evaluated for impairment as of that date. In accordance with the authoritative guidance for impairment of long-lived assets held for sale, we determined the carrying value of the land exceeded the estimated fair value less cost to sell. We recorded an impairment charge of $5.6 million associated with this land based on the estimated sale price. In December 2012, after several purchase offers for the land were terminated, we obtained a third party valuation for the land. Based on this fair value appraisal, we recorded an additional $1.2 million impairment charge associated with the land.
The table below presents the fair value measurements used to value this asset.
Accounting for Internally Developed Software and Website Development Costs
We capitalize costs incurred during the application development stage related to the development of internal-use software as specified in FASB ASC Topic 350-40 “Internal-Use Software.” Capitalized costs are generally amortized over the estimated useful life of three years. Costs incurred related to the conceptual design and maintenance of internal-use software are expensed as incurred. Website development activities include planning, design and development of graphics and content for new websites and operation of existing sites. Costs incurred that involve providing additional functions and features to the website are capitalized. Costs associated with website planning, maintenance, content development and training are expensed as incurred. Capitalized costs are generally amortized over the estimated useful life of three years. We capitalized $2.7 million, $2.3 million and $2.3 million during the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, related to internally developed software and website development costs. Amortization expense of amounts capitalized was $1.4 million, $1.8 million and $2.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively.
Accounting for Advertising and Promotional Cost
Costs of media advertising and associated production costs are expensed as incurred and amounted to approximately $8.6 million, $10.3 million and $10.5 million for each of the years ending December 31, 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively.
Accounting for Amortizable Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization. Typically, intangible assets are acquired in conjunction with the acquisition of radio stations, Internet businesses and publishing entities. These intangibles are amortized using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
The carrying value of our amortizable intangible assets are evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and businesses for indicators of impairment. In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360 “Property, Plant and Equipment,” when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets are less than the carrying amounts of these assets, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of these assets is recorded, if necessary. No adjustments to the carrying amounts of our amortizable intangible assets were necessary during the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 or 2012.
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
Approximately 71% of our total assets as of December 31, 2012, consist of indefinite-lived intangible assets, such as broadcast licenses, goodwill and mastheads, the value of which depends significantly upon the operating results of our businesses. In the case of our radio stations, we would not be able to operate the properties without the related FCC license for each property. Broadcast licenses are renewed with the FCC every eight years for a nominal cost that is expensed as incurred. We continually monitor our stations’ compliance with the various regulatory requirements. Historically, all of our broadcast licenses have been renewed at the end of their respective periods, and we expect that all broadcast licenses will continue to be renewed in the future. Accordingly, we consider our broadcast licenses to be indefinite-lived intangible assets in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other.” Broadcast licenses account for approximately 94% of our indefinite-lived intangible assets. Goodwill and magazine mastheads account for the remaining 6%. We do not amortize goodwill or other indefinite-lived intangible assets, but rather test for impairment at least annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired.
We complete our annual impairment tests in the fourth quarter of each year. We believe that our estimate of the value of our broadcast licenses, mastheads, and goodwill is a critical accounting estimate as the value is significant in relation to our total assets, and our estimates incorporate variables and assumptions that are based on past experiences and judgment about future operating performance of our markets and business segments. The fair value measurements for our indefinite-lived intangible assets use significant unobservable inputs that reflect our own assumptions about the estimates that market participants would use in measuring fair value including assumptions about risk. The unobservable inputs are defined in FASB ASC Topic 820 “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” as Level 3 inputs discussed in detail in Note 7 to our Consolidated Financial Statements. Please refer to “Note 2 – Impairment of Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets” for a further discussion of our testing plan and impairments recognized.
Gain or Loss on Disposal of Assets
We record gains or losses on the disposal of assets equal to the proceeds, if any, compared to the net book value. Exchange transactions are accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 845 “Non-Monetary Transactions.” For the year ended December 31, 2010, we recorded a loss on disposal of assets of $0.3 million which includes a $0.2 million pre-tax loss pending the sale of WAMD-AM, Aberdeen, Maryland, that closed on March 1, 2011, a $0.2 million loss on a related party real estate transaction and $0.2 million of losses related to various other fixed assets and equipment disposals offset by a $0.3 million pre-tax gain associated with the seizure of our property by the Dallas County School District. For the year ended December 31, 2011, we recorded a gain on disposal of assets of $4.2 million that includes a $2.4 million pre-tax gain on the sale of KKMO-AM in Seattle, Washington and a $2.1 million pre-tax gain on the sale of KXMX-AM in Los Angeles, California, offset by various fixed asset and equipment disposals. For the year ended December 31, 2012, we recorded a $0.2 million pre-tax gain on the sale of WBZS-AM in Pawtucket, Rhode Island and a $0.6 million gain from insurance proceeds for repairs of storm damage in our New York market , partially offset by various fixed asset and equipment disposals including an additional loss associated with the write-off of a receivable from a prior station sale.
We lease various facilities including broadcast tower and transmitter sites. When we enter a lease agreement, we review the terms to determine the appropriate classification of the lease as a capital lease or operating lease based on the factors listed in FASB ASC Topic 840 “Leases.” Our current lease terms generally range from one to twenty-five years with rent expense recorded on a straight-line basis for financial reporting purposes. We also sublease towers that we own under various agreements with other broadcasters. Subleases generally cover a sixty-year term, over which time we recognize rental income on a straight-line basis. Deferred rent revenue was $4.7 million and $4.6 million at December 31, 2011 and 2012, respectively.
We may elect to construct or otherwise invest in leasehold improvements to properties. We capitalize the cost of the improvements that are then amortized over the shorter of the useful life of the improvement or the remaining lease term.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs consist of bond issue costs and bank loan fees. Bond issue costs represent costs incurred in conjunction with the issuance of the 95/8% Senior Secured Second Lien Notes on December 1, 2009 (“95/8% Notes”). The costs are being amortized over the term of the 95/8% Notes as an adjustment to interest expense. Bank loan fees represent costs incurred with the Senior Credit Facility, which is a revolving credit facility (“Revolver”) entered on December 1, 2009. The costs are being amortized over the three-year term of the Revolver as an adjustment to interest expense. During the year ended December 31, 2010, approximately $0.7 million of bond issue costs were written off in conjunction with the early redemption of $30.0 million of the 95/8% Notes. During the year ended December 31, 2011, approximately $0.1 million of bond issue costs were written off upon the calling and retirement of the 95/8% Notes. During the year ended December 31, 2012, approximately $0.3 million of bond issue costs were written off upon the calling and retirement of the 95/8% Notes. Deferred financing costs consist of the following:
Partial Self-Insurance on Employee Health Plan
We provide health insurance benefits to eligible employees under a self-insured plan whereby the company pays actual medical claims subject to certain stop loss limits. We record self-insurance liabilities based on actual claims filed and an estimate of those claims incurred but not reported. Any projection of losses concerning our liability is subject to a high degree of variability. Among the causes of this variability are unpredictable external factors such as future inflation rates, changes in severity, benefit level changes, medical costs and claim settlement patterns. Should the actual amount of claims increase or decrease beyond what was anticipated, we may adjust our future reserves. Our self-insurance liability was $0.6 million at December 31, 2011 and 2012, respectively.
Local Programming and Marketing Agreement Fees
We may enter into a Local Marketing Agreement (“LMA”) or Time Brokerage Agreement (“TBA”) in connection with acquisitions of radio stations that are pending FCC regulatory approval of transfer of the broadcast licenses. Under the terms of these agreements, we make specified periodic payments to the owner in exchange for the right to program and sell advertising for a specified portion of the station’s inventory of broadcast time. We record revenues and expenses associated with the portion of the station’s inventory of broadcast time it manages. Nevertheless, as the holder of the FCC license, the owner-operator retains control and responsibility for the operation of the station, including responsibility over all programming broadcast on the station. We also enter into LMA’s in connection with dispositions of radio stations. In such cases, we may receive periodic payments in exchange for allowing the buyer to program and sell advertising for a portion of the station’s inventory of broadcast time.
We are exposed to fluctuations in interest rates. We actively monitor these fluctuations and use derivative instruments from time to time to manage the related risk. In accordance with our risk management strategy, we may use derivative instruments only for the purpose of managing risk associated with an asset, liability, committed transaction, or probable forecasted transaction that is identified by management. Our use of derivative instruments may result in short-term gains or losses that may increase the volatility of our earnings.
Under FASB ASC Topic 815 “Derivatives and Hedging” the effective portion of the gain or loss on a derivative instrument designated and qualifying as a cash flow hedging instrument shall be reported as a component of other comprehensive income (outside earnings) and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecasted transaction affects earnings. The remaining gain or loss on the derivative instrument, if any, shall be recognized currently in earnings.
Fair Value Accounting
FASB ASC Topic 820 “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” established a single definition of fair value in generally accepted accounting principles and expanded disclosure requirements about fair value measurements. The provision applies to other accounting pronouncements that require or permit fair value measurements. We adopted the fair value provisions for financial assets and financial liabilities effective January 1, 2008. The adoption had a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows. We adopted fair value provisions for nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities effective January 1, 2009. This includes applying the fair value concept to (i) nonfinancial assets and liabilities initially measured at fair value in business combinations; (ii) reporting units or nonfinancial assets and liabilities measured at fair value in conjunction with goodwill impairment testing; (iii) other nonfinancial assets measured at fair value in conjunction with impairment assessments; and (iv) asset retirement obligations initially measured at fair value. The adoption of the fair value provisions of FASB ASC Topic 820 to nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The fair value provisions include guidance on how to estimate the fair value of assets and liabilities in the current economic environment and reemphasizes that the objective of a fair value measurement remains an exit price. If we were to conclude that there has been a significant decrease in the volume and level of activity of the asset or liability in relation to normal market activities, quoted market values may not be representative of fair value and we may conclude that a change in valuation technique or the use of multiple valuation techniques may be appropriate.
The degree of judgment utilized in measuring the fair value of financial instruments generally correlates to the level of pricing observability. Pricing observability is affected by a number of factors, including the type of financial instrument, whether the financial instrument is new to the market, and the characteristics specific to the transaction. Financial instruments with readily available active quoted prices or for which fair value can be measured from actively quoted prices generally will have a higher degree of pricing observability and a lesser degree of judgment utilized in measuring fair value. Conversely, financial instruments rarely traded or not quoted will generally have less (or no) pricing observability and a higher degree of judgment utilized in measuring fair value. Please refer to “Note 7 Fair Value Accounting” for a further discussion.
Long-term Debt and Debt Covenant Compliance
Our classification of borrowings under our Revolver as long-term debt on our balance sheet is based on our assessment that, under the terms of our Credit Agreement and after considering our projected operating results and cash flows for the coming year, no principal payments are required to be made. These projections are estimates dependent upon a number of factors including developments in the markets in which we are operating in and economic and political factors, among other factors. Accordingly, these projections are inherently uncertain and our actual results could differ from these estimates.
Income taxes and uncertain tax positions
We account for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740 “Income Taxes.” Upon the adoption of the provisions on January 1, 2007, we had $3.0 million in liabilities related to uncertain tax positions, including $0.9 million recognized under FASB ASC Topic 450 “Contingencies” and carried forward from prior years and $2.1 million recognized upon adoption of the tax provision changes as a reduction to retained earnings. Included in the $2.1 million accrual was $0.1 million in related interest, net of federal income tax benefits. During 2011, we recognized a net increase of $0.2 million in liabilities and at December 31, 2011, had $3.8 million in liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits. During 2012, we recognized a net decrease of $2.5 million in liabilities and at December 31, 2012, had $1.3 million in liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits. Included in this liability amount were $0.02 million accrued for the related interest, net of federal income tax benefits and $0.02 million for the related penalties recorded in income tax expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Management expects an additional reduction of $0.4 million in the reserve over the next twelve months due to statute expirations.
A summary of the changes in the gross amount of unrecognized tax benefits is as follows:
Valuation allowance (deferred taxes)
For financial reporting purposes, we recorded a valuation allowance of $2.9 million as of December 31, 2012 to offset a portion of the deferred tax assets related to the state net operating loss carryforwards. Management regularly reviews our financial forecasts in an effort to determine our ability to utilize the net operating loss carryforwards for tax purposes. Accordingly, the valuation allowance is adjusted periodically based on management’s estimate of the benefit the company will receive from such carryforwards.
Basic and Diluted Net Earnings Per Share
Basic net earnings per share has been computed using the weighted average number of Class A and Class B shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period plus the dilutive effects of stock options.
Options to purchase 1,151,998, 1,640,392 and 1,927,099 shares of Class A common stock were outstanding at December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Unvested restricted stock shares of 10,000 were outstanding as of December 31, 2010. Diluted weighted average shares outstanding exclude outstanding stock options whose exercise price is in excess of the average price of the company’s stock price. These options are excluded from the respective computations of diluted net income or loss per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive. The number of anti-dilutive shares as of December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012 was 860,449, 1,397,538 and 480,825, respectively.
The following table sets forth the shares used to compute basic and diluted net earnings per share for the periods indicated:
We have historically had one reportable operating segment—radio broadcasting. Our radio-broadcasting segment operates radio stations throughout the United States, various radio networks and our National sales group. Beginning with the first quarter of 2011, we separated our non-broadcast segment into two operating segments, Internet and Publishing. We believe that this information regarding our non-broadcast segment is useful to readers of our financial statements. Additionally, due to growth within our Internet operations, including the acquisition of WorshipHouseMedia.com on March 28, 2011, our Internet segment qualifies for disclosure as a reportable segment. All prior periods presented have been updated to reflect the separation of these non-broadcast segments. Our Internet segment operates all of our websites and our consumer product sales. Our publishing segment operates our print magazine and Xulon Press, a print-on-demand book publisher. We present our segment operating results in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements.
Variable Interest Entities
We account for entities qualifying as variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in accordance with “FASB ASC Topic 810, Consolidation which requires VIEs to be consolidated by the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary is the entity that holds the majority of the beneficial interests in the VIE. A VIE is an entity for which the primary beneficiary’s interest in the entity can change with changes in factors other than the amount of investment in the entity.
We may enter into LMA’s contemporaneously with entering an APA to acquire or sell a radio station. We may also enter into Time Brokerage Agreements (“TBA’s”). Typically, both LMA’s and TBA’s are contractual agreements under which the station owner / licensee makes air-time available to a programmer / licensee in exchange for a fee and reimbursement of certain expenses. LMA’s and TBA’s are subject to compliance with the antitrust laws and the Communications Laws, including the requirement that the licensee must maintain independent control over the station and, in particular, its personnel, programming, and finances. The FCC has held that such agreements do not violate the Communications Laws as long as the licensee of the station receiving programming from another station maintains ultimate responsibility for, and control over, station operations and otherwise ensures compliance with the Communications Laws.
The requirements of FASB ASC Topic 810 may apply to entities under LMA’s or TBA’s, depending on the facts and circumstances related to each transaction. We did not consolidate any entities with which we entered into LMA’s or TBA’s under the guidance in FASB ASC Topic 810 as of December 31, 2012.
Concentrations of Business Risks
We derive a substantial part of our total revenues from the sale of advertising. For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012, 43.3%, 43.0% and 42.3% of our total revenues, respectively, were generated from the sale of broadcast advertising. We are particularly dependent on revenue from stations in the Los Angeles and Dallas markets, which generated 15.8%, and 18.8%, respectively, of our total net advertising revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010, 15.2% and 23.2% for the year ended December 31, 2011 and 16.2% and 23.6% for the year ended December 31, 2012. Because substantial portions of our revenues are derived from local advertisers in these key markets, our ability to generate revenues in those markets could be adversely affected by local or regional economic downturns.
Concentrations of Credit Risks
Our credit risk is spread across a large number of customers, none of which account for a significant volume of revenue or outstanding receivables. We do not normally require collateral on credit sales; however, credit histories are reviewed before extending substantial credit to any customer. We establish an allowance for doubtful accounts based on customers’ payment history and perceived credit risks. Bad debt expense has been within management’s expectations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant areas for which management uses estimates include, but are not limited to: (1) asset impairments, including broadcasting licenses and goodwill; (2) income tax valuation allowances; (3) uncertain tax positions; (4) allowance for doubtful accounts; (5) self-insurance reserves; (6) fair value of equity awards; (7) estimated lives for tangible and intangible assets; (8) fair value measurements; and (9) contingency reserves. These estimates require the use of judgment as future events and the effect of these events cannot be predicted with certainty. The estimates will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired and as more information is obtained. We evaluate and update our assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and we may consult outside experts to assist as considered necessary.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications include the separation of our non-broadcast segment into two operating segments, Internet and Publishing. We believe that this information regarding our non-broadcast segments is useful to readers of our financial statements. Additionally, due to growth within our Internet operations, including the acquisition of WorshipHouseMedia as discussed in Note 3, our Internet segment qualifies for disclosure as a reportable segment. All prior periods presented have been updated to reflect the separation of these non-broadcast segments. These reclassifications also include the accounting for discontinued operations as described in more detail in Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In October 2012, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2012-04, “Technical Corrections and Improvements.” The amendments in this update cover a wide range of Topics in the Accounting Standards Codification. These amendments include technical corrections and improvements to the Accounting Standards Codification and conforming amendments related to fair value measurements. The amendments in this update will be effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2012. The adoption of ASU 2012-04 is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In July 2012, the FASB issued ASU 2012-02, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other “Testing Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets for Impairment.” The updated guidance gives companies the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not, defined as a likelihood of more than 50%, that an indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that an impairment exists, then the company is required to estimate the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible assets and perform the quantitative impairment test in accordance with ASU 350-30. This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after September 15, 2012. Early adoption is permitted. We adopted ASU 2012-02 as of our 2012 annual impairment testing performed in the fourth quarter of 2012. Adoption of this pronouncement did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In December 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-11, “Balance Sheet (Topic 210): Disclosures about Offsetting Assets and Liabilities.” This ASU requires us to disclose both net and gross information about assets and liabilities that have been offset, if any, and the related arrangements. The disclosures under this new guidance are required to be provided retrospectively for all comparative periods presented. We are required to apply the amendments for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013, and interim periods within those annual periods. The adoption of ASU 2011-11 is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef