Basis of Presentation (Policies)
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Use of Estimates||
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Significant areas for which management uses estimates include:
These estimates require the use of judgment as future events and the effect of these events cannot be predicted with certainty. The estimates will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired and as more information is obtained. We evaluate and update our assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and we may consult outside experts to assist as considered necessary.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications include the accounting for finance lease obligations under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842, Leases (“ASC 842”) issued under ASU 2016-02 on January 1, 2019.
We adopted ASC 842 on January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective basis and did not restate comparative periods as permitted under Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2018-11. ASC 842 supersedes nearly all existing lease accounting guidance under GAAP issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) including ASC Topic 840, Leases. ASC 842 requires that lessees recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities calculated based on the present value of lease payments for all lease agreements with terms that are greater than twelve months. ASC 842 distinguishes leases as either a finance lease or an operating lease that affects how the leases are measured and presented in the statement of operations and statement of cash flows.
For operating leases, we calculated ROU assets and lease liabilities based on the present value of the remaining lease payments as of the date of adoption using the IBR as of that date. There were no changes in our capital lease portfolio, which are now titled “finance leases” under ASC 842, other than the reclassification of the assets acquired under capital leases from their respective property and equipment category and long-term debt to ROU assets and lease liabilities.
The adoption of ASC 842 resulted in recording a non-cash transitional adjustment to operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities of $65.0 million and $74.4 million, respectively. The difference between the operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities at transition represented existing deferred rent expense and prepaid rent that was derecognized. The adoption of ASC 842 did not materially impact our results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. Refer to Note 8 for more information.
The FASB issued practical expedients and accounting policy elections that we have applied as described below.
ASC 842 provides a package of three practical expedients that must be adopted together and applied to all lease agreements. We elected the package of practical expedients as follows for all leases:
Whether expired or existing contracts contain leases under the new definition of a lease.
Because the accounting for operating leases and service contracts was similar under ASC 840, there was no accounting reason to separate lease agreements from service contracts in order to account for them correctly. We reviewed existing service contracts to determine if the agreement contained an embedded lease to be accounted for on the balance sheet under ASC 842.
Lease classification for expired or existing leases.
Leases that were capital leases under ASC 840 are accounted for as financing leases under ASC 842 while leases that were operating leases under ASC 840 are accounted for as operating leases under ASC 842.
Whether previously capitalized initial direct costs would meet the definition of initial direct costs under the new standard guidance.
The definition of initial direct costs is more restrictive under ASC 842 than under ASC 840. Entities that do not elect the practical expedient are required to reassess capitalized initial direct costs under ASC 840 and record an equity adjustment for those that are not capitalizable under ASC 842.
Land Easement Practical Expedient
We elected the practical expedient that permits us to continue applying our current policy of accounting for land easements that existed as of, or expired before, the effective date of ASC 842. We have applied this policy to all of our existing land easements that were not previously accounted for under ASC 840.
Accounting Policy Elections
We calculate the term for each lease agreement to include the noncancellable period specified in the agreement together with (1) the periods covered by options to extend the lease if we are reasonably certain to exercise that option, (2) periods covered by an option to terminate if we are reasonably certain not to exercise that option and (3) period covered by an option to extend (or not terminate) if controlled by the lessor.
The assessment of whether we are reasonably certain to exercise an option to extend a lease requires significant judgement surrounding contract-based factors, asset-based factors, entity-based factors and market-based factors. These factors are described in our Critical Accounting Policies, Judgments and Estimates in Item 2 in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.
Lease payments consist of the following payments (as applicable) related to the use of the underlying asset during the lease term:
Short-Term Lease Exemption
We elected to exclude short-term leases, or leases with a term of twelve months or less that do not contain a purchase option that we are reasonably certain to exercise, from our ROU asset and lease liability calculations.
We considered the applicability of the short-term exception on month-to-month leases with perpetual or rolling renewals as we are “reasonably certain” to continue the lease. For example, we lease various storage facilities under agreements with month-to-month terms that have continued over several years. The standard terms and conditions for a majority of these agreements allow either party to terminate within a notice period ranging from 10 to 30 days. There are no cancellation penalties other than the potential loss of a one-month rent or a security deposit if the termination terms are not adhered to.
We believe that these month-to-month leases qualify for the short-term exception to ASC 842 because either party can terminate the agreement without permission from the other party with no more than an insignificant penalty, therefore, the arrangements do not create enforceable rights and obligations. Additionally, the cost to move to a new location or find comparable facilities is low as there are no unique features of the storage facilities that impact our business or operations. We considered termination clauses, costs associated with moving and costs associated with finding alternative facilities to exclude month-to-month leases that have perpetually renewed.
Service Agreements with an Embedded Lease Component
We elected to exclude certain service agreements that contain embedded leases for equipment based on the immaterial impact of these agreements. Our analysis included cable and satellite television service agreements for which our monthly payment may include equipment rentals, coffee and water service at certain facilities that may include equipment rentals (we often meet minimum requirements and just pay for product used), security services that include a monthly fee for cameras or equipment, and other similar arrangements. Based on the insignificant amount of the monthly lease costs, we elected to exclude these agreements from our ROU asset and liability calculations due to the immaterial impact to our financial statements.
Index or Rate Applicable to Operating Lease Liabilities
We elected to measure lease liabilities for variable lease payments using the current rate or index in effect at the time of transition on January 1, 2019. Using the current index or rate is consistent with how we calculated and presented future minimum lease payments under ASC 840. Therefore, there is no change in accounting policy applicable to this election.
Incremental Borrowing Rate
The ROU asset and related lease liabilities recorded under ASC 842 are calculated based on the present value of the lease payments using (1) the rate implicit in the lease or (2) the lessee’s IBR, defined as the rate of interest that a lessee would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. We performed an analysis as of January 1, 2019 to estimate the IBR applicable to Salem upon transition to ASC 842. Our analysis required the use of significant judgement and estimates, including the estimated value of the underlying leased asset, as described in are described in our Critical Accounting Policies, Judgments and Estimates in Item 2 in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.
We elected to use a portfolio approach by applying a single IBR to leases with reasonably similar characteristics, including the remaining lease term, the underlying assets and the economic environment. We believe that applying the portfolio approach is acceptable because the results do not materially differ from the application of the leases model to the individual leases in that portfolio.
Sales Taxes and Other Similar Taxes
We elected not to evaluate whether sales taxes or other similar taxes imposed by a governmental authority on a specific lease revenue-producing transaction that are collected by the lessor from the lessee are the primary obligation of the lessor as owner of the underlying leased asset. A lessor that makes this election will exclude these taxes from the measurement of lease revenue and the associated expense. Taxes assessed on a lessor’s total gross receipts or on the lessor as owner of the underlying asset (e.g., property taxes) are excluded from the scope of the policy election. A lessor must apply the election to all taxes in the scope of the policy election and would provide certain disclosures.
Separating Consideration between Lease and Non-Lease Components
We elected to include the lease and non-lease components (or the fixed and variable consideration) as a single component accounted for as a lease. This practical expedient is elected by class of underlying assets as an accounting policy election and applies to all arrangements in that class of underlying assets that qualify for the expedient. ASC 842 provides this expedient to alleviate concerns that the costs and administrative burden of allocating consideration to the separate lease and non-lease components may not justify the benefit of more precisely reflecting the ROU asset and the lease liability.
Contracts that include lease and non-lease components that are accounted for under the election not to separate require that all components that qualify for the practical expedient be combined. The components that do not qualify, such as those for which the timing and pattern of transfer of the lease and associated non-lease components are not the same, are accounted for separately.
Accounting for a lease component of a contract and its associated non-lease components as a single lease component results in an allocation of the total contract consideration to the lease component. Therefore, the initial and subsequent measurement of the lease liability and ROU asset is greater than if the policy election was not applied. The greater ROU asset value is considered in our impairment analysis.
Impairment of ROU Assets
ROU assets are reviewed for impairment when indicators of impairment are present. ROU assets from operating and finance leases are subject to the impairment guidance in ASC 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment, as ROU assets are long-lived nonfinancial assets.
ROU assets are tested for impairment individually or as part of an asset group if the cash flows related to the ROU asset are not independent from the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. An asset group is the unit of accounting for long-lived assets to be held and used, which represents the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets and liabilities.
After a careful analysis of the guidance, we concluded that the appropriate unit of accounting for testing ROU assets for impairment is the broadcast market cluster level for radio station operations and the entity or division level for digital media entities, publishing entities and networks. Corporate ROU assets are tested on a consolidated level with consideration given to all cash flows of the company as corporate functions do not generate cash flows and are funded by revenue-producing activities at lower levels of the entity.
ASC 360 requires three steps to identify, recognize and measure the impairment of a long-lived asset (asset group) to be held and used:
Step 1 – Consider whether Indicators of Impairment are Present
As detailed in ASC 360-10-35-21, the following are examples of impairment indicators:
Other indicators should be considered if we believe that the carrying amount of an asset (asset group) may not be recoverable.
Step 2 - Test for Recoverability
If indicators of impairment are present, we are required to perform a recoverability test comparing the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows attributable to the long-lived asset or asset group in question to the carrying amount of the long-lived asset or asset group.
ASC 360 does not specifically address how operating lease liabilities and future cash outflows for lease payments should be considered in the recoverability test. Under ASC 360, financial liabilities, or long-term debt, generally are excluded from an asset group while operating liabilities, such as accounts payable, generally are included. ASC 842 characterizes operating lease liabilities as operating liabilities. Because operating lease liabilities may be viewed as having attributes of finance liabilities as well as operating liabilities, it is generally acceptable for a lessee to either include or exclude operating lease liabilities from an asset group when testing whether the carrying amount of an asset group is recoverable provided the approach is applied consistently for all operating leases and when performing Steps 2 and 3 of the impairment model in ASC 360.
In cases where we have received lease incentives, including operating lease liabilities in an asset group may result in the long-lived asset or asset group having a zero or negative carrying amount because the incentives reduce our ROU assets. We elected to exclude operating lease liabilities from the carrying amount of the asset group such that we test ROU assets for operating leases in the same manner that we test ROU assets for financing leases.
Undiscounted Future Cash Flows
The undiscounted future cash flows in Step 2 are based on our own assumptions rather than a market participant. If an election is made to exclude operating lease liabilities from the asset or asset group, all future cash lease payments for the lease should also be excluded. The standard requires lessees to exclude certain variable lease payments from lease payments and, therefore, from the measurement of a lessee’s lease liabilities. Because these variable payments do not reduce the lease liability, we include the variable payments we expect to make in our estimate of the undiscounted cash flows in the recoverability test (Step 2) using a probability-weighted approach.
Step 3 - Measurement of an Impairment Loss
If the undiscounted cash flows used in the recoverability test are less than the carrying amount of the long-lived asset (asset group), we are required to estimate the fair value of the long-lived asset or asset group and recognize an impairment loss when the carrying amount of the long-lived asset or asset group exceeds the estimated fair value. We elected to exclude operating lease liabilities from the estimated fair value, consistent with the recoverability test. Any impairment loss for an asset group must reduce only the carrying amounts of a long-lived asset or assets of the group, including the ROU assets. The loss must be allocated to the long-lived assets of the group on a pro rata basis using the relative carrying amounts of those assets, except that the loss allocated to an individual long-lived asset of the group must not reduce the carrying amount of that asset below its fair value whenever the fair value is determinable without undue cost and effort. ASC 360 prohibits the subsequent reversal of an impairment loss for an asset held and used.
Fair Value Considerations
When determining the fair value of a ROU asset, we must estimate what market participants would pay to lease the asset or what a market participant would pay up front in one payment for the ROU asset, assuming no additional lease payments would be due. The ROU asset must be valued assuming its highest and best use, in its current form, even if that use differs from the current or intended use. If no market exists for an asset in its current form, but there is a market for a transformed asset, the costs to transform the asset are considered in the fair value estimate. Refer to Note 15, Fair Value Measurements.
There were no indications of impairment during the period ended September 30, 2019.
|Recent Accounting Pronouncements||
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Changes to accounting principles are established by the FASB in the form of ASUs to the FASB’s Codification. We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. Described below are ASUs that are not yet effective, but may be applicable to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined to not be applicable to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Tope 818): Clarifying the Interaction Between Topic 808 and Topic 606, which clarifies when transactions between participants in a collaborative arrangement are within the scope of the FASB’s revenue standard, Topic 606. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-17, Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities, that changes the guidance for determining whether a decision-making fee paid to a decision makers and service providers are variable interests. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract. ASU 2018-15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. ASU 2018-13 removes or modifies certain disclosures and in certain instances requires additional disclosures. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-09, Codification Improvements. ASU 2018-09 provides minor corrections and clarifications that affect a variety of topics in the Codification. Several updates are effective upon issuance of the update while others have transition guidance for effective dates in the future. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, which changes the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. For trade and other receivables, held-to-maturity debt securities, loans and other instruments, entities will be required to use a new forward-looking “expected loss” model that will replace today’s “incurred loss” model and generally will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, entities will measure credit losses in a manner similar to current practice, except that the losses will be recognized as an allowance. Subsequent to issuing ASU 2016-13, the FASB issued ASU 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses, for the purpose of clarifying certain aspects of ASU 2016-13. ASU 2018-19 has the same effective date and transition requirements as ASU 2016-13. In April 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-04, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments, which is effective with the adoption of ASU 2016-13. In May 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-05, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326), which is also effective with the adoption of ASU 2016-13. In October 2019, the FASB voted to delay the implementation date for certain companies, including those that qualify as a smaller reporting company under SEC rules, until January 1, 2023, with revised ASU’s expected to be issued in November 2019. We expect to continue to qualify as a smaller reporting company and will adopt this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2023. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
Under the acquisition method of accounting as specified in FASB ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations, the total acquisition consideration of a business is allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values as of the date of the transaction. Transactions that do not meet the definition of a business in ASU 2017-01 Business Combinations (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business are recorded as asset purchases. Asset purchases are recognized based on their cost to acquire, including transaction costs. The cost to acquire an asset group is allocated to the individual assets acquired based on their relative fair value with no goodwill recognized.
Fair value estimates include the discounted cash flows expected to be generated by the assets over their expected useful lives based on historical experience, market trends and the impact of any synergies believed to be achieved from the acquisition. Acquisitions may include contingent consideration, the fair value of which is estimated as of the acquisition date as the present value of the expected contingent payments as determined using weighted probabilities of the payment amounts.
We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”). ASC Topic 606 is a comprehensive revenue recognition model that requires revenue to be recognized when control of the promised goods or services are transferred to our customers at an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive. The application of ASC Topic 606 requires us to use significant judgment and estimates. Application of ASC Topic 606 requires a five-step model applicable to all revenue streams as follows:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer
A contract with a customer exists when (i) we enter into an enforceable contract with a customer that defines each party’s rights regarding the goods or services to be transferred and identifies the payment terms related to these goods or services, (ii) the contract has commercial substance and, (iii) we determine that collection of substantially all consideration for goods or services that are transferred is probable based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration.
We apply judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer.
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract
Performance obligations promised in a contract are identified based on the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer that are both capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the goods or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available from third parties or from us, and are distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the goods or services is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.
When a contract includes multiple promised goods or services, we apply judgment to determine whether the promised goods or services are capable of being distinct and are distinct within the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met, the promised goods or services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation.
Determination of the transaction price
The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which we will be entitled to receive in exchange for transferring goods or services to our customer. We estimate any variable consideration included in the transaction price using the expected value method that requires the use of significant estimates for discounts, cancellation periods, refunds and returns. Variable consideration is described in detail below.
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative Stand-Alone Selling Price (“SSP,”) basis. We determine SSP based on the price at which the performance obligation would be sold separately. If the SSP is not observable, we estimate the SSP based on available information, including market conditions and any applicable internally approved pricing guidelines.
Recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation
We recognize revenue at the point in time that the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring the promised goods or services to our customer.
Principal versus Agent Considerations
When another party is involved in providing goods or services to our customer, we apply the principal versus agent guidance in ASC Topic 606 to determine if we are the principal or an agent to the transaction. When we control the specified goods or services before they are transferred to our customer, we report revenue gross, as principal. If we do not control the goods or services before they are transferred to our customer, revenue is reported net of the fees paid to the other party, as agent. Our evaluation to determine if we control the goods or services within ASC Topic 606 includes the following indicators:
We are primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified good or service.
When we are primarily responsible for providing the goods and services, such as when the other party is acting on our behalf, we have indication that we are the principal to the transaction. We consider if we may terminate our relationship with the other party at any time without penalty or without permission from our customer.
We have inventory risk before the specified good or service has been transferred to a customer or after transfer of control to the customer.
We may commit to obtaining the services of another party with or without an existing contract with our customer. In these situations, we have risk of loss as principal for any amount due to the other party regardless of the amount(s) we earn as revenue from our customer.
The entity has discretion in establishing the price for the specified good or service.
We have discretion in establishing the price our customer pays for the specified goods or services.
Contract Assets - Costs to Obtain a Contract: We capitalize commissions paid to sales personnel in our self-publishing business when customer contracts are signed and advance payment is received. These capitalized costs are recorded as prepaid commission expense in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The amount capitalized is incremental to the contract and would not have been incurred absent the execution of the customer contract. Commissions paid upon the initial acquisition of a contract are expensed at the point in time that related revenue is recognized. Prepaid commission expenses are periodically reviewed for impairment. At September 30, 2019, our prepaid commission expense was $0.6 million.
Contract liabilities consist of customer advance payments and billings in excess of revenue recognized. We may receive payments from our customers in advance of completing our performance obligations. Additionally, new customers, existing customers without approved credit terms and authors purchasing specific self-publishing services, are required to make payments in advance of the delivery of the products or performance of the services. We record contract liabilities equal to the amount of payments received in excess of revenue recognized, including payments that are refundable if the customer cancels the contract according to the contract terms. Contract liabilities were historically recorded under the caption “deferred revenue” and are reported as current liabilities on our consolidated financial statements when the time to fulfill the performance obligations under terms of our contracts is less than one year. Long-term contract liabilities represent the amount of payments received in excess of revenue earned, including those that are refundable, when the time to fulfill the performance obligation is greater than one year. Our long-term liabilities consist of subscriptions with a term of two-years for which some customers have purchased and paid for multiple years.
Significant changes in our contract liabilities balances during the period are as follows:
We expect to satisfy these performance obligations as follows:
Significant Financing Component
The length of our typical sales agreement is less than 12 months, however, we may sell subscriptions with two-year terms. The balance of our long-term contract liabilities represent the unsatisfied performance obligations for subscriptions with a remaining term in excess of one year. We review long-term contract liabilities that are expected to be completed in excess of one year to assess whether the contract contains a significant financing component. The balance includes subscriptions that will be satisfied at various dates between October 1, 2020 and September 30, 2024. The difference between the promised consideration and the cash selling price of the publications is not significant. Therefore, we have concluded that subscriptions do not contain a significant financing component under ASC Topic 606.
Our self-publishing contracts may exceed a one year term due to the length of time for an author to submit and approve a manuscript for publication. The author may pay for publishing services in installments over the production time line with payments due in advance of performance. The timing of the transfer of goods and services under self-publishing arrangements are at the discretion of the author and based on future events that are not substantially within our control. We require advance payments to provide us with protection from incurring costs for products that are unique and only sellable to the author. Based on these considerations, we have concluded that our self-publishing contracts do not contain a significant financing component under ASC Topic 606.
We enter into agreements under which the amount of revenue we earn is contingent upon the amount of money raised by our customer over the contract term. Our customer is typically a charity or programmer that purchases blocks of programming time or spots to generate revenue from our audience members. Contract terms can range from a few weeks to a few months, depending the charity or programmer. If the campaign does not generate a pre-determined level of donations or revenue to our customer, the consideration that we expect to be entitled to may vary above a minimum base level per the contract. Historically, under ASC Topic 605, we reported variable consideration as revenue when the amount was fixed and determinable. Under ASC Topic 606, variable consideration is to be estimated using the expected value or the most likely amount to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.
Based on the constraints for using estimates of variable consideration within ASC Topic 606, and our historical experience with these campaigns, we continue to recognize revenue at the base amount of the campaign with variable consideration recognized when the uncertainty of each campaign is resolved. These constraints include: (1) the amount of consideration received is highly susceptible to factors outside of our influence, specifically the extent to which our audience donates or contributes to our customer or programmer, (2) the length of time in which the uncertainty about the amount of consideration expected is to be resolved, and (3) our experience has shown these contracts have a large number and broad range of possible outcomes.
Trade and Barter Transactions
In broadcasting, trade or barter agreements are commonly used to reduce cash expenses by exchanging advertising time for goods or services. We may enter barter agreements to exchange air time or digital advertising for goods or services that can be used in our business or that can be sold to our audience under Listener Purchase Programs. The terms of these barter agreements permit us to preempt the barter air time or digital campaign in favor of customers who purchase the air time or digital campaign for cash. The value of these non-cash exchanges is included in revenue in an amount equal to the estimated fair value of the goods or services we receive. Each transaction is reviewed to determine that the products, supplies and/or services we receive have economic substance, or value to us. We record barter operating expenses upon receipt and usage of the products, supplies and services, as applicable. We record barter revenue as advertising spots or digital campaigns are delivered, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Barter revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the programmer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Trade and barter revenues and expenses were as follows:
We elected the following policies permitted under ASC Topic 606:
The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by revenue source for each of our three operating segments:
A summary of each of our revenue streams under ASC Topic 606 is as follows:
Block Programming. We recognize revenue from the sale of blocks of air time to program producers that typically range from 121/2, 25 or 50-minutes of time. We separate block program revenue into three categories, National, Local and Infomercial revenue. Our stations are classified by format, including Christian Teaching and Talk, News Talk, Contemporary Christian Music, Spanish Language Christian Teaching and Talk and Business. National and local programming content is complementary to our station format while infomercials are closely associated with long-form advertisements. Block Programming revenue may include variable consideration for charities and programmers that purchase blocks of air time to generate donations and contributions from our audience. Block programming revenue is recognized at the time of broadcast, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Programming revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the programmer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Spot Advertising. We recognize revenue from the sale of air time to local and national advertisers who purchase spot commercials of varying lengths. Spot Advertising may include variable consideration for charities and programmers that purchase spots to generate donations and contributions from our audience. Advertising revenue is recognized at the time of broadcast, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Advertising revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the advertiser, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Network Revenue. Network revenue includes the sale of advertising time on our national network and fees earned from the syndication of programming on our national network. Network revenue is recognized at the time of broadcast, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Network revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Digital Advertising. We recognize revenue from the sale of banner advertising on our owned and operated websites and on our own and operated mobile applications. Each of our radio stations, our digital media entities and certain publishing entities have custom websites and mobile applications that generate digital advertising revenue. Digital advertising revenue is recognized at the time that the banner display is delivered, or the number of impressions delivered meets the advertiser’s previously agreed-upon performance criteria, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Digital advertising revenue is reported on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Broadcast digital advertising revenue consists of local digital advertising, such as the sale of banner advertisements on our owned and operated websites, the sale of advertisements on our own and operated mobile applications, and advertisements in digital newsletters that we produce, as well an national digital advertising, or the sale of custom digital advertising solutions, such as web pages and social media campaigns, that we offer to our customers. Advertising revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the advertiser, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
During 2018, we launched Salem Surround, a national multimedia advertising agency with locations in 35 markets across the United States. Salem Surround offers a comprehensive suite of digital marketing services to develop and execute audience-based marketing strategies for clients on both the national and local level. Salem Surround specializes in digital marketing services for each of our radio stations and websites as well as provides a full-service digital marketing strategy for each of our clients. In our role as a digital agency, our sales team provides our customers with integrated digital advertising solutions that optimize the performance of their campaign, which we view as one performance obligation. Our advertising campaigns are designed to be “white label” agreements between Salem and our advertiser, meaning we provide special care and attention to the details of the campaign. We provide custom digital product offerings, including tools for metasearch, retargeting, website design, reputation management, online listing services, and social media marketing. Digital advertising solutions may include third-party websites, such as Google or Facebook, which can be included in a digital advertising social media campaign. We manage all aspects of the digital campaign, including social media placements, review and approval of target audiences, and the monitoring of actual results to make modifications as needed. We may contract directly with a third-party, however, we are responsible for delivering the campaign results to our customer with or without the third-party. We are responsible for any payments due to the third-party regardless of the campaign results and without regard to the status of payment from our customer. We have discretion in setting the price to our customer without input or approval from the third-party. Accordingly, revenue is reported gross, as principal, as the performance obligation is delivered, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation.
Digital Streaming. We recognize revenue from the sale of advertisements and from the placement of ministry content that is streamed on our owned and operated websites and on our owned and operated mobile applications. Each of our radio stations, our digital media entities and certain publishing entities have custom websites and mobile applications that generate streaming revenue. Digital streaming revenue is recognized at the time that the content is delivered, or when the number of impressions delivered meets our customer’s previously agreed-upon performance criteria. Delivery of the content represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Streaming revenue is reported on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Digital Downloads and e-books. We recognize revenue from sale of downloaded materials, including videos, song tracks, sermons, content archives and e-books. Payments for downloaded materials are due in advance of the download, however, the download is often instant upon confirmation of payment. Digital download revenue is recognized at the time of download, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue is recorded at the gross amount due from the customer. All sales are final with no allowances made for returns.
Subscriptions. We recognize revenue from the sale of subscriptions for financial publication digital newsletters, digital magazines, podcast subscriptions for on-air content, and subscriptions to our print magazine. Subscription terms typically range from three months to two years, with a money-back guarantee for the first 30 days. Refunds after the first 30 day period are considered on a pro-rata basis based on the number of publications issued and delivered. Payments are due in advance of delivery and can be made in full upon subscribing or in quarterly installments. Cash received in advance of the subscription term, including amounts that are refundable, is recorded in contract labilities. Revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription term at the point in time that each publication is transmitted or shipped, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue is reported net of estimated cancellations, which are based on our experience and historical cancellation rates during the cancellable period.
Book Sales. We recognize revenue from the sale of books upon shipment, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing the performance obligation. Revenue is recorded at the gross amount due from the customer, net of estimated sales returns and allowances based on our historical experience. Major new title releases represent a significant portion of the revenue in the current period. Print-based consumer books are sold on a fully-returnable basis. We do not record assets or inventory for the value of returned books as they are considered used regardless of the condition returned. Our experience with unsold or returned books is that their resale value is insignificant and they are often destroyed or disposed of.
e-Commerce. We recognize revenue from the sale of products sold through our digital platform. Payments for products are due in advance of shipping. We record a contract liability for customer payments received in advance of shipment. The time frame from the receipt of payment to shipment is typically one business day based on the time that an order is placed as compared to fulfillment. E-Commerce revenue is recognized at the time of shipment, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue is reported net of estimated returns, which are based on our experience and historical return rates. Returned products are recorded in inventory if they are unopened and re-saleable with a corresponding reduction in the cost of goods sold.
Self-Publishing Fees. We recognize revenue from self-publishing services through Salem Author Services (“SAS”), including book publishing and support services to independent authors. Services include book cover design, interior layout, printing, distribution, marketing services and editing for print books and eBooks. As each book and related support services are unique to each author, authors must make payments in advance of the performance. Payments are typically made in installments over the expected production time line for each publication. We record contract liabilities equal to the amount of payments received, including those amounts that are fully or partially refundable. Contract liabilities were historically recorded under the caption “deferred revenue” and are reported as current liabilities or long-term liabilities on our consolidated financial statements based on the time to fulfill the performance obligations under terms of the contract. Refunds are limited based on the percentage completion of each publishing project.
Revenue is recognized upon completion of each performance obligation, which represents the point in time that control of the product is transferred to the author, thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue is recorded at the net amount due from the author, including discounts based on the service package.
Advertising - Print. We recognize revenue from the sale of print magazine advertisements. Revenue is recognized upon delivery of the print magazine which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing the performance obligation. Revenue is reported on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Other Revenues. Other revenues include various sources, such as event revenue, listener purchase programs, talent fees for on-air hosts, rental income for studios and towers, production services, and shipping and handling fees. We recognize event revenue, including fees earned for ticket sales and sponsorships, when the event occurs, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue for all other products and services is recorded as the products or services are delivered or performed, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Other revenue is reported on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Disclosure of accounting policy for completed business combinations (purchase method, acquisition method or combination of entities under common control). This accounting policy may include a general discussion of the purchase method or acquisition method of accounting (including for example, the treatment accorded contingent consideration, the identification of assets and liabilities, the purchase price allocation process, how the fair values of acquired assets and liabilities are determined) and the entity's specific application thereof. An entity that acquires another entity in a leveraged buyout transaction generally discloses the accounting policy followed by the acquiring entity in determining the basis used to value its interest in the acquired entity, and the rationale for that accounting policy.
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Disclosure of accounting policy for leasing arrangement entered into by lessee.
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Disclosure of accounting policy pertaining to new accounting pronouncements that may impact the entity's financial reporting. Includes, but is not limited to, quantification of the expected or actual impact.
No definition available.
Disclosure of accounting policy for reclassifications that affects the comparability of the financial statements.
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Disclosure of accounting policy for revenue. Includes revenue from contract with customer and from other sources.
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Disclosure of accounting policy for the use of estimates in the preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles.
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