SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of Salem Media Group, Inc. (“Salem” “we,” “us,” “our” or the “company”) include the company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Description of Business
Salem is a domestic multimedia company with integrated operations including radio broadcasting, digital media, and publishing. Effective as of February 19, 2015, we changed our name from Salem Communications Corporation to Salem Media Group, Inc. to more accurately reflect our multimedia business. Salem was formed in 1986 as a California corporation and was reincorporated in Delaware in 1999. Our content is intended for audiences interested in Christian and family-themed programming and conservative news talk. We maintain a website at www.salemmedia.com.
We have three operating segments, (1) Broadcast, (2) Digital Media, and (3) Publishing, which are discussed in Note 20 Segment Data. Our foundational business is the ownership and operation of radio stations in large metropolitan markets. We also own and operate Salem Radio Network® (“SRN”), SRN News Network (“SNN”), Today’s Christian Music (“TCM”), Singing News Network (formerly Solid Gospel Network) and Salem Media RepresentativesTM (“SMR”). SRN, SNN, and Singing News Network are networks that develop, produce and syndicate a broad range of programming specifically targeted to Christian and family-themed talk stations, music stations and general News Talk stations throughout the United States, including Salem-owned and operated stations. SMR, a national advertising sales firm with offices in nine U.S. cities, specializes in placing national advertising on religious and other commercial radio stations.
Our digital media based businesses provide Christian, conservative, investing and health-themed content, e-commerce, audio and video streaming, and other resources digitally through the web. Salem Web Network (“SWN”) websites include Christian content websites: OnePlace.com, Christianity.com, Crosswalk.com®, GodVine.com, CrossCards.com, LighSource.com, Jesus.org, BibleStudyTools.com, iBelieve.com, CCMmagazine.com and ChristianHeadlines.com,. Our conservative opinion websites, collectively known as Townhall Media, include Townhall.com, HotAir.com, Twitchy.com, HumanEvents.com, RedState.com, and BearingArms.com. We also issue digital newsletters, including Eagle Financial Publications, which provide market analysis and non-individualized investment strategies from financial commentators on a subscription basis.
Church product websites including WorshipHouseMedia.com, SermonSpice.com, SermonSearch.com, and ChurchStaffing.com offer downloads and service platforms to pastors and other educators. Our web content is accessible through all of our radio station websites that feature content of interest to local audiences throughout the United States.
Digital media includes our e-commerce sites, Eagle Wellness and Gene Smart Wellness. These e-commerce sites offer health advice and nutritional products.
Our publishing operating segment is comprised of three businesses: (1) Regnery Publishing is a traditional book publisher that has published dozens of bestselling books by leading conservative authors and personalities, including Ann Coulter, Newt Gingrich, David Limbaugh, Ed Klein, Mark Steyn and Dinesh D'Souza; (2) Salem Author Services, our self-publishing services for authors through Xulon Press and Hillcrest Media; and (3) Salem Publishing which produces and distributes five print magazines and one digital magazine.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid debt instruments, purchased with an initial maturity of three-months or less, to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of our cash and cash equivalents approximated fair value at each balance sheet date.
Trade Accounts Receivable
Trade accounts receivable represent receivables from customers for the sale of advertising, block program time, sponsorships and events, product sales, royalties, video and graphic downloads, subscriptions, and book sales. Our receivables are recorded as invoiced and represent claims that will be settled in cash. The carrying value of our receivables, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts and estimated sales returns, represents their estimated net realizable value. Trade accounts receivable for our self-publishing services represent contractual amounts due under individual payment plans. These contractual receivables are included in deferred revenue until the applicable earnings process is complete.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We evaluate the balance reserved in our allowance for doubtful accounts on a quarterly basis based on our historical collection experience, the age of the receivables, specific customer information and current economic conditions. Past due balances are generally not written-off until all of our collection efforts have been unsuccessful, including use of a collections agency. A considerable amount of judgment is required in assessing the likelihood of ultimate realization of these receivables, including the current creditworthiness of each customer. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Inventories consist of finished goods, including published books and wellness products. Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or market as determined on a First-In First-Out (“FIFO”) cost method.
We reviewed historical data associated with book and wellness product inventories held by Regnery Publishing and our e-commerce wellness entities, as well as our own experiences to estimate the fair value of inventory on hand. Our analysis includes a review of actual sales returns, our allowances, royalty reserves, overall economic conditions and product demand. We record a provision to expense the balance of unsold inventory that we believe to be unrecoverable. We regularly monitor actual performance to our estimates and make adjustments as necessary. Estimated inventory reserves may be adjusted, either favorably or unfavorably, if factors such as the historical data we used to calculate these estimates do not properly reflect future returns or as a result of changes in economic conditions of the customer and/or the market. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost represents the historical cost of acquiring the asset, including the costs necessarily incurred to bring it to the condition and location necessary for its intended use. For assets constructed for our own use, such as towers and buildings that are discrete projects for which costs are separately accumulated and for which construction takes considerable time, we record capitalized interest. The amount capitalized is the cost that could have been avoided had the asset not been constructed and is based on the average accumulated expenditures incurred over the capitalization period at the weighted average rate applicable to our outstanding variable rate debt. We capitalized interest of $0.2 million and $0.1 million during the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Improvements are capitalized if they extend the life of the asset or enhance the quality or ability of the asset to benefit operations. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives as follows:
The carrying value of property and equipment is evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and business units for indicators of impairment. When indicators of impairment are present, and the cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets is less than the carrying value, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of the assets is recorded. See Note 9 Property and Equipment.
Internally Developed Software and Website Development Costs
We capitalize costs incurred during the application development stage related to the development of internal-use software as specified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 350-40 “Internal-Use Software.” Capitalized costs are generally amortized over the estimated useful life of three years. Costs incurred related to the conceptual design and maintenance of internal-use software are expensed as incurred. Website development activities include planning, design and development of graphics and content for new websites and operation of existing sites. Costs incurred that involve providing additional functions and features to the website are capitalized. Costs associated with website planning, maintenance, content development and training are expensed as incurred. We capitalized $2.3 million, $2.2 million and $3.9 million during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, related to internally developed software and website development costs. Amortization expense of amounts capitalized was $2.5 million, $2.4 million and $2.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Amortizable Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization. Typically, intangible assets are acquired in conjunction with the acquisition of broadcast entities, digital media entities and publishing entities. These intangibles are amortized using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
The carrying value of our amortizable intangible assets are evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and businesses for indicators of impairment. In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360 “Property, Plant and Equipment,” when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets are less than the carrying amounts of these assets, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of these assets is recorded, if necessary. During 2016, we recorded an impairment of approximately $8,000 associated with amortizable assets within our wellness products business. See Note 2 Impairment of Goodwill and Other Non-Amortizable Assets and Note 10 Amortizable Intangible Assets. No adjustments to the carrying amounts of our amortizable intangible assets were necessary during the year’s ended December 31, 2015 or 2014.
In the case of our broadcast radio stations, we would not be able to operate the properties without the related FCC broadcast license for each property. Broadcast licenses are renewed with the FCC every eight years for a nominal fee that is expensed as incurred. We continually monitor our stations’ compliance with the various regulatory requirements that are necessary for FCC renewal and all of our broadcast licenses have been renewed at the end of their respective periods. We expect all of our broadcast licenses to be renewed in the future and therefore, we consider our broadcast licenses to be indefinite-lived intangible assets. The weighted-average period before the next renewal of our broadcasting licenses is 4.5 years.
We do not amortize broadcast licenses, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that the value may be impaired. We perform our annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year, which coincides with our budget and planning process for the upcoming year.
The unit of accounting we use to test broadcast licenses is the cluster level, which we define as a group of radio stations operating in the same geographic market, sharing the same building and equipment and managed by a single general manager. The cluster level is the lowest level for which discrete financial information and cash flows are available and the level reviewed by management to analyze operating results.
We perform a qualitative assessment for each of our broadcast market clusters. We review the significant assumptions and key estimates applicable to our prior year estimated fair value calculations to assess if events and circumstances have occurred that could affect these assumptions and key estimates. We also review internal benchmarks and the economic performance for each market cluster to assess if it is more likely than not that impairment exists.
The first step of our qualitative assessment is to calculate excess fair value, or the amount by which our prior year estimated fair value exceeds the current year carrying value. We believe based on our analysis and review, including the financial performance of each market, that a 25% excess fair value margin is a conservative and reasonable benchmark for our qualitative analysis. Markets with an excess fair value of 25% or more, which have had no significant changes in the prior year assumptions and key estimates, are not likely to be impaired.
The second step of our qualitative assessment consists of a review of the financial operating results for each market cluster. Radio stations are often sold on the basis of a multiple of projected cash flow, or Station Operating Income (“SOI”) defined as net broadcast revenue less broadcast operating expenses. See Item 6 Selected Financial Data within this annual report for information on SOI, a non-GAAP measure. Numerous trade organizations and analysts review these radio station sales to track SOI multiples applicable to each transaction. Based on published reports and analysis of market transactions, we believe industry benchmarks to be in the six to seven times cash flow range. We elected an SOI benchmark of four as a conservative indicator of fair value.
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
We account for goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350 “IntangiblesGoodwill and Other.” Approximately 70% of our total assets as of December 31, 2016, consist of indefinite-lived intangible assets, such as broadcast licenses, goodwill and mastheads, the value of which depends significantly upon the operating results of our businesses. Broadcast licenses account for approximately 94% of our indefinite-lived intangible assets. Goodwill and mastheads account for the remaining 6%. We do not amortize goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired. We perform our annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year, which coincides with our budget and planning process for the upcoming year.
The unit of accounting we use to test goodwill associated with our radio stations is the cluster level, which we define as a group of radio stations operating in the same geographic market, sharing the same building and equipment and managed by a single general manager. Nineteen of our 34 market clusters have goodwill associated with them as of our annual testing period ending December 31, 2016.
The unit of accounting we use to test goodwill in our radio networks is the entity level, which includes Salem Radio Network® (“SRN”), SRN News Network (“SNN”), Todays Christian Music (“TCM”) and Singing News Network (formerly Solid Gospel Network. The entity level is the level reviewed by management for which discreet financial information is available. One of our five networks has goodwill associated with it as of our annual testing period ending December 31, 2016.
The unit of accounting we use to test goodwill in our digital media segment is the entity level, which includes Salem Web Network, Townhall.com, Eagle Financial Publications and wellness products. The financial statements for Salem Web Network reflect the operating results and cash flows for all of our Internet sites and our church product sites exclusive of Townhall.com. The financial statements for Townhall.com reflect the operating results for each of our conservative opinion sites. Eagle Wellness includes only the results of the e-commerce site for nutritional products.
The unit of accounting we use to test goodwill in our publishing segment is the entity level, which includes Regnery Publishing, Xulon Press, and Hillcrest Media. Regnery Publishing is our book publishing entity based in Washington DC, with a stand-alone facility under one general manager, with operating results and cash flows of reported at the entity level. Xulon Press and Hillcrest Media also operate from a stand-alone facility in Orlando, Florida under one general manager who is responsible for the separately stated operating results and cash flows.
We perform a qualitative assessment to determine if events and circumstances have occurred that indicate it is more likely than not that the fair value of the assets in market cluster are less than their carrying values. We review the significant inputs used in our prior year fair value estimates to determine if any changes to those inputs should be made. We estimate fair value using a market approach and compare the estimated fair value of a market cluster to its carrying value, including goodwill. If the carrying amount, including goodwill, exceeds the estimated fair value of the market cluster, a potential indication exists that the amount of goodwill attributed to that market cluster may be impaired.
When performing Step 1 of our annual impairment testing of goodwill, the fair value of the entity is estimated using a discounted cash flow analysis, a form of the income approach. The discounted cash flow analysis utilizes a five to seven year projection period to derive operating cash flow projections from a market participant view. We make certain assumptions regarding future revenue growth based on industry market data, historical performance and expected future performance. We also make assumptions regarding working capital requirements and ongoing capital expenditures for fixed assets.
Future net free cash flows are calculated on a debt free basis and discounted to present value using a risk adjusted discount rate. The terminal year value is calculated using the Gordon constant growth method and long-term growth rate assumptions based on long-term industry growth and GDP inflation rates. The resulting fair value estimates, net of any interest bearing debt, are compared to the carrying value of each reporting units’ net assets.
We estimate the fair value using a market approach and compare the estimated fair value of each entity to its carrying value, including goodwill. Under the market approach, we apply a multiple of four to each entities operating income to estimate the fair value. We believe that a multiple of four is a conservative indicator of fair value as described above.
If the carrying amount, including goodwill, exceeds the estimated fair value of the reporting unit, an indication exists that the amount of goodwill attributed to that entity may be impaired. When we have indication of impairment, we engage an independent third-party appraisal and valuation firm to assist us with determining the enterprise value. If the results of Step 1 indicate that the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, Step 2 is required. Under Step 2, the implied fair value of the reporting unit, including goodwill, is calculated to determine the amount of the impairment.
Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
Mastheads consist of the graphic elements that identify our publications to readers and advertisers. These include customized typeset page headers, section headers, and column graphics as well as other name and identity stylized elements within the body of each publication. We test the value of mastheads as a single combined publishing entity as our print magazines operate from one shared facility under one general manager with operating results and cash flows reported on a combined basis for all publications. This is the lowest level for which discrete financial information and cash flows are available and the level reviewed by management to analyze operating results.
We account for business acquisitions in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting as specified in FASB ASC Topic 805 “Business Combinations.” The total acquisition consideration is allocated to assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values as of the date of the transaction. Estimates of the fair value include discounted estimated cash flows to be generated by the assets and their expected useful lives based on historical experience, market trends and any synergies believed to be achieved from the acquisition. The excess of consideration paid over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill and any excess of fair value of the net assets acquired over the consideration paid is recorded as a gain on bargain purchase. Prior to recording a gain, the acquiring entity must reassess whether all acquired assets and assumed liabilities have been identified and recognized and perform re-measurements to verify that the consideration paid, assets acquired, and liabilities assumed have been properly valued. We underwent such a reassessment, and as a result, recorded a gain on bargain purchase of $0.1 million for KXFN-AM in St. Louis, Missouri during the year ended December 31, 2016. During the year ended December 31, 2015 recorded a gain on bargain purchase of $1.4 million, including $0.8 million for WSDZ-AM in St. Louis, Missouri, $0.3 million for KDIZ-AM in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and $0.3 million for WWMI-AM in Tampa, Florida. We believe that these gains on bargain purchase resulted from various factors that may have impacted the acquisition price, including, without limitation, that Disney was eager to divest of their Radio Disney properties in 2015 and the seller of WSDZ-AM was under a receivership.
Acquisitions may include contingent earn-out consideration, the fair value of which is estimated as of the acquisition date as the present value of the expected contingent payments as determined using weighted probabilities of the payment amounts. See Note 4 Acquisitions and Recent Transactions and Note 5 Contingent Earn-Out Consideration.
A majority of our radio station acquisitions have consisted primarily of the FCC licenses to broadcast in a particular market. We often do not acquire the existing format, or we change the format upon acquisition when we find it beneficial. As a result, a substantial portion of the purchase price for the assets of a radio station is allocated to the broadcast license.
Property and equipment are recorded at their estimated fair value and depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Finite-lived intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair value and amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Costs associated with acquisitions, such as consulting and legal fees, are expensed as incurred in unallocated corporate operating expenses.
Contingent Earn-Out Consideration
Our acquisitions often include contingent earn-out consideration as part of the purchase price. The fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration is estimated as of the acquisition date based on the present value of the expected contingent payments to be made using a weighted probability of possible payments. The unobservable inputs used in the determination of the fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration include our own assumptions about the likelihood of payment based on the established benchmarks and discount rates based on our internal rate of return analysis. The fair value measurement includes inputs that are Level 3 measurements as discussed in Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements.
We review the probabilities of possible future payments to the estimated fair value of any contingent earn-out consideration on a quarterly basis over the earn-out period. Actual results are compared to the estimates and probabilities of achievement used in our forecasts. Should actual results increase or decrease as compared to the assumption used in our analysis, the fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration obligations will increase or decrease, up to the contracted limit, as applicable. Changes in the fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration could cause a material impact and volatility in our operating results. See Note 5 Contingent Earn-Out Consideration.
We regularly review underperforming assets to determine if a sale or disposal might be a better way to monetize the assets. When a station, group of stations, or other asset group is considered for sale or disposal, we review the transaction to determine if or when the entity qualifies as a discontinued operation in accordance with the criteria of FASB ASC Topic 205-20 “Discontinued Operations.” In April 2014, the FASB issued authoritative guidance which raises the threshold for disposals to qualify as discontinued operations. Under the new guidance, a discontinued operation is (1) a component of an entity or group of components that have been disposed of or are classified as held for sale and represent a strategic shift that has or will have a major effect on an entity's operations and financial results, or (2) an acquired business that is classified as held for sale on the acquisition date. We elected to early-adopt the FASB guidance for discontinued operations issued in April 2014.
Revenue is recognized as it is earned in accordance with applicable guidelines. We consider amounts to be earned once evidence of an arrangement has been obtained, services are performed, fees are fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured.
We account for broadcast revenue from the sale of airtime for programs or spots as the program or advertisement is broadcast. Revenues are reported net of agency commissions, which are calculated as a stated percentage applied to gross billings. Digital revenue is recognized upon delivery of page-views, delivery of impressions as specified in the contract, delivery of the digital newsletter or email, or upon delivery of the advertisement or programming content via streaming. Revenues are reported net of agency commissions, which are calculated as a stated percentage applied to gross billings. Revenue from product sales and book sales are recognized upon shipment net of distribution fees and an allowance for sales returns. Revenues from advertisements in our print magazines are recognized upon delivery of the publication net of agency commissions, which are calculated as a stated percentage applied to gross billings. Subscription revenue from our print magazines and digital newsletters is recognized over the life of the related subscription.
We enter bundled advertising agreements that may include cross-promotions such as advertisements on our radio stations, digital banners, print magazine placements, booth space at local events, or some combination thereof. The multiple deliverables contained in each agreement are accounted for separately over their respective delivery period provided that they are separate units of accounting. The selling price for each deliverable is based on vendor specific objective evidence, if available, or the estimated fair value of each deliverable. Objective evidence of the fair value includes the price charged for each element when sold separately or the price that we would transact if the deliverable is sold regularly on a standalone basis. Arrangement consideration is allocated at the inception of each agreement to all deliverables using the relative selling price method. The relative selling price method allocates any discount in the arrangement proportionally to each deliverable on the basis of each deliverable’s selling price.
We provide for estimated returns for products sold with the right of return, primarily book sales associated with Regnery Publishing and nutritional products sold through Eagle Wellness and Gene Smart. We record an estimate of these product returns as a reduction of revenue in the period of the sale. Our estimates are based upon historical sales returns, the amount of current period sales, economic trends and any changes in customer demand and acceptance of our products. We regularly monitor actual performance to estimated return rates and make adjustments as necessary. Estimated return rates utilized for establishing estimated returns reserves have approximated actual returns experience. However, actual returns may differ significantly, either favorably or unfavorably, from these estimates if factors such as the historical data we used to calculate these estimates do not properly reflect future returns or as a result of changes in economic conditions of the customer and/or the market. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates
We may provide broadcast time or digital advertising placement to customers in exchange for certain products, supplies or services. The terms of these exchanges generally permit for the preemption of such broadcast time or digital placements in favor of customers who purchase these items for cash. We include the value of such exchanges in net revenues and operating expenses. The value recorded for barter revenue and barter expense is based upon management’s estimate of the fair value of the products, supplies or services received. . We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our barter revenue and barter expense are accurately reflected.
We record barter revenue as it is earned, typically when the broadcast time is used or the digital advertisement is delivered. We record barter expense equal to the estimated fair value of the goods or services received upon receipt or usage of the items as applicable. Barter revenue included in broadcast revenue for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 was approximately $5.4 million, $6.1 million and $6.0 million, respectively. Barter expenses included in broadcast operating expense for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 were approximately $5.3 million, $5.9 million and $6.0 million, respectively. Barter revenue included in digital media revenue for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 was approximately $42,000, $0.1 million and $0.2 million, respectively. Barter expenses included in digital media operating expense for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 were approximately $34,000, $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
We account for stock-based compensation under the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 718, “CompensationStock Compensation.” We record equity awards with stock-based compensation measured at the fair value of the award as of the grant date. We determine the fair value of our options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model that requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price volatility and expected term of the options granted. The exercise price for options is equal to the closing market price of Salem Media Group common stock as of the date of grant. We use the straight-line attribution method to recognize share-based compensation costs over the expected service period of the award. Upon exercise, cancellation, forfeiture, or expiration of stock options, or upon vesting or forfeiture of restricted stock awards, deferred tax assets for options and restricted stock awards with multiple vesting dates are eliminated for each vesting period on a first-in, first-out basis as if each vesting period was a separate award. See Note 15 Stock Incentive Plan.
Advertising and Promotional Cost
Costs of media advertising and associated production costs are expensed as incurred and amounted to approximately $12.3 million, $11.3 million and $11.5 million for each of the years ending December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
We lease broadcast towers, transmitter sites and office space throughout the United States. We review each lease agreement upon inception to determine the appropriate classification of the lease as a capital lease or operating lease based on the factors listed in FASB ASC Topic 840 “Leases.” Our current lease terms generally range from one to twenty-five years with rent expense recorded on a straight-line basis for financial reporting purposes. Where leases include rent holidays, rent escalations, rent concessions and leasehold improvement incentives, the value of these incentives are amortized over the lease term including anticipated renewal periods. Rent expense, exclusive of intercompany leases eliminated during consolidation, was $15.3 million, $14.8 million and $13.8 million, respectively, for each of the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.
Deferred rental revenue was $4.3 million as of December 31, 2016 compared to $4.4 million as of the prior year.
We may construct or otherwise invest in leasehold improvements to properties. The costs of these leasehold improvements are capitalized and depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the improvement or the lease term including anticipated renewal periods.
Partial Self-Insurance on Employee Health Plan
We provide health insurance benefits to eligible employees under a self-insured plan whereby the company pays actual medical claims subject to certain stop loss limits. We record self-insurance liabilities based on actual claims filed and an estimate of those claims incurred but not reported. Our estimates are based on historical data and probabilities that are subject to a high degree of variability due to unpredictable external factors such as future inflation rates, changes in severity, benefit level changes, medical costs and claim settlement patterns. Should the actual amount of claims increase or decrease beyond what was anticipated, we may adjust our future reserves. Our self-insurance liability was $0.8 million and $0.7 million at December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Changes in the number and/or the amount of claims could cause a material impact and volatility in our operating results. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. While we had an unusually high level of claims in the third quarter of 2016 due to a larger than normal number of expensive claims, we believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
We are exposed to fluctuations in interest rates. We actively monitor these fluctuations and use derivative instruments from time to time to manage the related risk. In accordance with our risk management strategy, we may use derivative instruments only for the purpose of managing risk associated with an asset, liability, committed transaction, or probable forecasted transaction that is identified by management. Our use of derivative instruments may result in short-term gains or losses that may increase the volatility of our earnings.
Under FASB ASC Topic 815, “Derivatives and Hedging” the effective portion of the gain or loss on a derivative instrument designated and qualifying as a cash flow hedging instrument shall be reported as a component of other comprehensive income (outside earnings) and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecasted transaction affects earnings. The remaining gain or loss on the derivative instrument, if any, shall be recognized currently in earnings.
On March 27, 2013, we entered into an interest rate swap agreement with Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. that began on March 28, 2014 with a notional principal amount of $150.0 million. The agreement was entered to offset risks associated with the variable interest rate on our Term Loan B. Payments on the swap are due on a quarterly basis with a LIBOR floor of 0.625%. The swap expires on March 28, 2019 at a fixed rate of 1.645%. The interest rate swap agreement was not designated as a cash flow hedge, and as a result, all changes in the fair value are recognized in the current period statement of operations rather than through other comprehensive income. We recorded a long-term liability of $0.5 million as of December 31, 2016, representing the fair value of the interest rate swap agreement. The swap was valued based on observable inputs for similar assets and liabilities and other observable inputs for interest rates and yield curves, which are classified within Level 2 inputs in the fair value hierarchy described below and in Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements.
Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
As of December 31, 2016, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, trade accounts receivables, accounts payable, accrued expenses and accrued interest approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of such instruments. The carrying value of other long-term liabilities approximates fair value as the related interest rates approximate rates currently available to the company. See Note 12 Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures.
Long-term Debt and Debt Covenant Compliance
Our classification of outstanding borrowings on our Term Loan B as long-term debt on our balance sheet is based on our assessment that, under the terms of our Credit Agreement and after considering our projected operating results and cash flows for the coming year, no principal payments are required to be made within the next twelve months. The Term Loan B has a term of seven years, maturing in March 2020. We are required to make principal payments of $750,000 per quarter, which began on September 30, 2013; however, repayments may be made against the outstanding balance. Each repayment of the Term Loan B is applied ratably to each of the next four principal installments thereof in the direct order of maturity and thereafter to the remaining principal balance in reverse order of maturity.
Our projections of operating results and cash flows for the coming year are estimates dependent upon a number of factors including but not limited to developments in the markets in which we are operating in and varying economic and political factors. Accordingly, these projections are inherently uncertain and our actual results could differ from these estimates.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs consists of underwriting and legal fees incurred in conjunction with entering our Term Loan B and Revolver. In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-03, “Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs,” that requires the cost of issuing debt to be recorded as a reduction of the debt proceeds or a reduction of the debt liability, similar to the presentation of debt discounts. Prior to this ASU, debt issue costs were recorded as deferred costs, or long-term intangible assets. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-15, “Presentation and Subsequent Measurement of Debt Issuance Costs Associated with Line-of-Credit Arrangements - Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to Staff Announcement at June 18, 2015 EITF Meeting” that amended ASU 2015-03 to reflect the SEC staff’s position that it would not object to an entity deferring and presenting debt issuance costs related to line-of-credit arrangements as an asset and subsequently amortizing deferred debt issuance costs ratably over the term of the line-of-credit arrangement, regardless of whether there are outstanding borrowings under that line-of-credit arrangement.
We adopted ASU 2015-03, as amended by ASU 2015-15, as of the effective date of January 1, 2016. Debt issue costs are being amortized to non-cash interest expense over the life of the Term Loan B using the effective interest method. We chose to continue presentation of debt issue costs associated with our Revolver as an asset in accordance with ASU 2015-15. We have retrospectively accounted for the implementation of ASU 2015-03 and ASU 2015-15 as a change in accounting principle. Costs of the Revolver are being amortized to non-cash interest expense over the five year life of the Revolver using the effective interest method based on an imputed interest rate of 4.58%.
Income Tax Valuation Allowances (Deferred Taxes)
We account for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740 “Income Taxes.” In preparing our consolidated financial statements, we estimate our income tax liability in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate by estimating our actual current tax exposure and assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and financial statement purposes. We calculate our current and deferred tax provisions based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed during the subsequent year. Adjustments based on filed returns are generally recorded in the period when the tax returns are filed and the tax implications are known. Tax law and rate changes are reflected in the income tax provision in the period in which such changes are enacted.
We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. We consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies in assessing the need for a valuation allowance. In the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be charged to earnings in the period in which we make such a determination. Likewise, if we later determine that it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets would be realized, we would reverse the applicable portion of the previously provided valuation allowance.
For financial reporting purposes, we recorded a valuation allowance of $4.5 million as of December 31, 2016 and $2.8 million as of December 31, 2015, to offset a portion of the deferred tax assets related to the state net operating loss carryforwards. During the third quarter of 2016, we identified an error in our estimated valuation allowance for certain deferred tax assets. We recorded an out-of-period adjustment to increase our valuation allowance by $1.6 million for a portion of the deferred tax assets related to state net operating loss carryforwards that we determined were not more likely than not to be realized. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Income Taxes and Uncertain Tax Positions
We are subject to audit and review by various taxing jurisdictions. We may recognize liabilities on our financial statements for positions taken on uncertain tax positions. When tax returns are filed, it is highly certain that some positions taken would be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, while others may be subject to uncertainty about the merits of the position taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. The benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, we believe it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Such positions are deemed to be unrecognized tax benefits and a corresponding liability is established on the balance sheet. It is inherently difficult and subjective to estimate such amounts, as this requires us to make estimates based on the various possible outcomes.
We review and reevaluate uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. Changes in assumptions may result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision. During 2016, we recognized a net decrease of $0.1 million in liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions. Accordingly, we have no liabilities for uncertain tax positions recorded at December 31, 2016. The $0.1 million balance at December 31, 2015 included approximately $21,000 of accrued interest, net of federal income tax benefits, and $6,000 for the related penalties previously recorded in income tax expense. Our evaluation was performed for all tax years that remain subject to examination, which range from 2012 through 2015. There are currently no tax examinations in process.
Effective Tax Rate
Our provision for income tax as a percentage of operating income before taxes, or our effective tax rate, may be impacted by:
Our annual effective tax rate may also be materially impacted by tax expense associated with non-amortizable assets such as broadcast licenses and goodwill as well as changes in the deferred tax valuation allowance. An impairment loss for financial statement purposes will result in an income tax benefit during the period incurred as the amortization of broadcasting licenses and goodwill is deductible for income tax purposes.
Royalties due to book authors are paid in advance and capitalized. Royalties are expensed as the related book revenues are earned or when we determine that future recovery of the royalty is not likely. We reviewed historical data associated with royalty advances, earnings and recoverability based on actual results of Regnery Publishing. Historically, the longer the unearned portion of an advance remains outstanding, the less likely it is that we will recover the advance through the sale of the book. We apply this historical experience to outstanding royalty advances to estimate the likelihood of recovery. A provision was established to expense the balance of any unearned advance which we believe is not recoverable. Our analysis also considers other discrete factors, such as death of an author, any decision to not pursue publication of a title, poor market demand or other relevant factors. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in various legal proceedings, lawsuits, arbitration and other claims which are complex in nature and have outcomes that are difficult to predict. Consequently, we are unable to ascertain the ultimate aggregate amount of monetary liability or the financial impact with respect to these matters.
We record contingency reserves to the extent we conclude that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the related loss can be reasonably estimated. The establishment of the reserve is based on a review of all relevant factors, the advice of legal counsel, and the subjective judgment of management. The reserves we have recorded to date have not been material to our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
While we believe that the final resolution of any known maters, individually and in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect upon our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows, it is possible that we could incur additional losses. We maintain insurance that may provide coverage for such matters. Future claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could have a material adverse effect upon our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows, including losses due to costly litigation and losses due to matters that require significant amounts of management time that can result in the diversion of significant operational resources. See Note 14 Commitments and Contingencies.
Gain or Loss on the Sale or Disposal of Assets
We record gains or losses on the sale or disposal of assets equal to the proceeds, if any, as compared to the net book value. Exchange transactions are accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 845 “Non-Monetary Transactions.” During the year ended December 31, 2016, we recorded a $1.9 million pre-tax gain which included a $1.9 million gain on the sale of our Miami tower site and a $0.7 million gain from a land easement in our South Carolina market offset by a $0.4 million charge associated with leasehold improvements that were abandoned during the relocation of our offices in Washington D.C. market and various fixed asset disposals. During the year ended December 31, 2015, we recorded a $0.2 million pre-tax loss which included a $0.2 million charge associated with the relocation of our office and studio in our Seattle, Washington market offset by proceeds from various fixed asset and equipment disposals. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recorded a $0.3 million pre-tax loss which included a $0.2 million loss associated with the write-off of a receivable from a prior station sale, a $0.2 million loss from the sale of land and building in our Miami market, a $0.1 million loss due to the relocation of our office and studio facility in our San Francisco market offset by $0.1 million of insurance proceeds from a claim associated with one of our markets as well as other various fixed asset and equipment disposals.
Basic and Diluted Net Earnings Per Share
Basic net earnings per share has been computed using the weighted average number of Class A and Class B shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period plus the dilutive effects of stock options.
Options to purchase 1,720,000, 1,581,123 and 1,816,204 shares of Class A common stock were outstanding at December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Diluted weighted average shares outstanding exclude outstanding stock options whose exercise price is in excess of the average price of the company’s stock price. These options are excluded from the respective computations of diluted net income or loss per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive. The number of anti-dilutive shares as of December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 was 795,378, 589,437, and 705,163, respectively.
The following table sets forth the shares used to compute basic and diluted net earnings per share for the periods indicated:
We have three operating segments: (1) Broadcast, (2) Digital Media, and (3) Publishing, which also qualify as reportable segments. Our operating segments reflect how our chief operating decision makers, which we define as a collective group of senior executives, assesses the performance of each operating segment and determines the appropriate allocations of resources to each segment. We continually review our operating segment classifications to align with operational changes in our business and may make changes as necessary.
We measure and evaluate our operating segments based on operating income and operating expenses that do not include allocations of costs related to corporate functions, such as accounting and finance, human resources, legal, tax and treasury, which are reported as unallocated corporate expenses in our consolidated statements of operations included in this annual report on Form 10-K. We also exclude costs such as amortization, depreciation, taxes and interest expense.
During the third quarter of 2016, we reclassed Salem Consumer Products, our e-commerce business that sells books, DVD’s and editorial content developed by our on-air personalities, from our Digital Media segment to our Broadcast segment. This reclassification was to consolidate all revenue and expenses generated by on-air hosts, which includes broadcast programs and e-commerce product sales to better assess the financial performance of each network program. This reclassification did not impact the reporting units used to test non-amortizable assets for impairment. All prior periods presented are updated to reflect this new composition of our operating segments. Refer to Note 20 Segment Data in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Variable Interest Entities
We may enter into agreements or investments with other entities that could qualify as variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 810 “Consolidation.” A VIE is consolidated in the financial statements if we are deemed to be the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary is the entity that holds the majority of the beneficial interests in the VIE, either explicitly or implicitly. A VIE is an entity for which the primary beneficiary’s interest in the entity can change with variations in factors other than the amount of investment in the entity. We perform our evaluation for VIE’s upon entry into the agreement or investment. We re-evaluate the VIE when or if events occur that could change the status of the VIE.
We may enter into lease arrangements with entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties. We believe that the requirements of FASB ASC Topic 810 do not apply to these entities because the lease arrangements do not contain explicit guarantees of the residual value of the real estate, do not contain purchase options or similar provisions and the leases are at terms that do not vary materially from leases that would have been available with unaffiliated parties. Additionally, we do not have an equity interest in the entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties and we do not guarantee debt of the entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties.
We also enter into Local Marketing Agreements (“LMAs”) or Time Brokerage Agreements (“TBAs”) contemporaneously with entering into an Asset Purchase Agreement (“APA”) to acquire or sell a radio station. Typically, both LMAs and TBAs are contractual agreements under which the station owner/licensee makes airtime available to a programmer/licensee in exchange for a fee and reimbursement of certain expenses. LMAs and TBAs are subject to compliance with the antitrust laws and the communications laws, including the requirement that the licensee must maintain independent control over the station and, in particular, its personnel, programming, and finances. The FCC has held that such agreements do not violate the communications laws as long as the licensee of the station receiving programming from another station maintains ultimate responsibility for, and control over, station operations and otherwise ensures compliance with the communications laws.
The requirements of FASB ASC Topic 810 may apply to entities under LMAs or TBAs, depending on the facts and circumstances related to each transaction. As of December 31, 2016, we did not have implicit or explicit arrangements that required consolidation under the guidance in FASB ASC Topic 810.
Concentrations of Business Risks
We derive a substantial part of our total revenues from the sale of advertising. For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, 38.3%, 39.2% and 40.0% of our total broadcast revenues, respectively, were generated from the sale of broadcast advertising. We are particularly dependent on revenue from stations in the Los Angeles and Dallas markets, which generated 15.1% and 20.8% for the year ended December 31, 2016, 14.7% and 24.5% for the year ended December 31, 2015, and 14.3% and 24.0% for the year ended December 31, 2014. Because substantial portions of our revenues are derived from local advertisers in these key markets, our ability to generate revenues in those markets could be adversely affected by local or regional economic downturns.
Concentrations of Credit Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents; trade accounts receivable and derivative instruments. We place our cash and cash equivalents with high quality financial institutions. Such balances may be in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits. To manage the related credit exposure, we continually monitor the credit worthiness of the financial institutions where we have deposits. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivable are limited due to the wide variety of customers and markets in which we provide services, as well as the dispersion of our operations across many geographic areas. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers, but generally do not require collateral to support customer receivables. We establish an allowance for doubtful accounts based on various factors including the credit risk of specific customers, age of receivables outstanding, historical trends, economic conditions and other information. Historically, our bad debt expense has been within management’s expectations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Significant areas for which management uses estimates include:
These estimates require the use of judgment as future events and the effect of these events cannot be predicted with certainty. The estimates will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired and as more information is obtained. We evaluate and update our assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and we may consult outside experts to assist as considered necessary.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications include the adoption of FASB Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2015-03 and ASU 2015-15 and the reclassification of Salem Consumer Products from e-commerce (digital) to broadcast. Under ASU 2015-03 and 2015-15, debt issuance costs, with the exception of costs associated with obtaining line-of-credit arrangements, are reported as a reduction of the debt liability rather than as a deferred cost asset. The adoption of ASU 2015-03 and ASU 2015-15 is reported as a change in accounting principle and discussed in detail in Note 11 Notes Payable. The reclassification of Salem Consumer Products, our e-commerce business that sells books, DVD’s and editorial content developed by our on-air personalities, was made to assess the performance of each network program based on all revenue sources. Refer to Note 20 Segment Data for an explanation of this reclassification.
During the third quarter of 2016, we identified an error in our valuation allowance for certain deferred tax assets. We recorded an adjustment to increase our estimated deferred tax valuation allowance by $1.6 million for a portion of the deferred tax assets related to state net operating loss carryforwards that we determined were not more likely than not to be realized.
In evaluating the adjustment, we referred to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) No. 99, including SAB Topic 1.M, which provides guidance on the assessment of materiality and states that “the omission or misstatement of an item in a financial report is material if, in the light of surrounding circumstances, the magnitude of the item is such that it is probable that the judgment of a reasonable person relying upon the report would have been changed or influenced by the inclusion or correction of the item.” We also referred to SAB 108 for guidance on considering the effects of prior year misstatements when quantifying misstatements in current year financial statements and the assessment of materiality.
Our analysis of the materiality of the adjustment was performed by reviewing quantitative and qualitative factors. We determined based on this analysis that the adjustment was not material to the current period and any prior periods.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Changes to accounting principles are established by the FASB in the form of ASUs to the FASB’s Codification. We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. Described below are ASUs that are not yet effective, but may be applicable to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined to not be applicable to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In February 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-05, Other Income Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets (Topic 610-20), which clarifies the scope and application of ASC Topic 610-20 on accounting for the sale or transfer of nonfinancial assets, that is an asset with physical value such as real estate, equipment, intangibles or similar property. ASU 2017-05 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We have not yet evaluated the impact of the adoption of this accounting standard on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, “Intangibles Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment,” which eliminates the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill in Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. Under ASU 2017-04, goodwill impairment charges will be based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value as determined in Step 1 of the testing. ASU 2017-04 is effective for interim and annual testing dates after January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted for interim and annual goodwill impairment testing dates after January 1, 2017. We have not yet evaluated the impact of the adoption of this accounting standard on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-03, “Accounting Changes and Error Corrections (Topic 250) and Investments Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323)” which amends the Codification to incorporate SEC staff views regarding recently issued accounting standards and investments in qualified affordable housing projects. The guidance requires registrants to disclose the effect that recently issued accounting standards will have on their financial statements when adopted in a future period. ASU 2017-03 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-03 to impact our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, “Business Combinations Clarifying the Definition of a Business,” which clarifies the definition of a business for determining whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-01 to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-19 “Technical Corrections and Improvements,” which covers a wide range of topics in the Codification. The amendments in this update represent changes to clarify, correct errors, or make minor improvements to the Accounting Standards Codification. ASU 2016-19 is effective upon issuance for amendments that do not have transition guidance, and for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those years for all other amendments with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2016-19 did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, “Statements of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash” which provides guidance on the presentation of restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-18 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-18 to have a material impact on our cash flows or presentation thereof.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-17, “Interests Held through Related Parties That Are under Common Control,” which amends the consolidation guidance in ASU 2015-02 regarding the treatment of indirect interests held through related parties that are under common control. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-17 to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16 “Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory,” which modifies existing guidance for the accounting for income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers of assets. This ASU requires entities to immediately recognize the tax consequences on intercompany asset transfers (excluding inventory) at the transaction date, rather than deferring the tax consequences under current GAAP. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim reports within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted only as of the first quarter of a fiscal year. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-16 to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments,” which clarifies how entities should classify certain cash receipts and cash payments on the statement of cash flows with the objective of reducing diversity in practice related to eight specific types of transactions. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-15 to have a material impact on our financial cash flows or presentation thereof.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses,” which changes the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. For trade and other receivables, held-to-maturity debt securities, loans and other instruments, entities will be required to use a new forward-looking “expected loss” model that will replace today’s “incurred loss” model and generally will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, entities will measure credit losses in a manner similar to current practice, except that the losses will be recognized as an allowance. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We have not yet evaluated the impact of the adoption of this accounting standard on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting.” This ASU simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those years, with early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-09 to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842),” which requires that lessees recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with lease terms greater than twelve months in the balance sheet. ASU 2016-02 requires additional disclosures including the significant judgments made by management to provide insight into the revenue and expense to be recognized from existing contracts and the timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We have not yet determined the dollar impact of recording operating leases on our statement of financial position. The adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have a material impact on our financial position and the presentation thereof. Our existing credit facility stipulates that our covenants are based on GAAP as of the agreement date. Therefore, the material impact of recording right-to-use assets and lease liabilities on our statement of financial position is not expected to impact the compliance status for any covenant.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, “Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities,” which provides updated guidance that enhances the reporting model for financial instruments, including amendments, to address aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. With the exception of the early application guidance applicable to certain entities, early adoption of the amendments is not permitted. We have not yet evaluated the impact of the adoption of this accounting standard on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, “Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes,” to simplify the presentation of deferred taxes in the statement of financial position. The updated guidance requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent in a classified balance sheet. Current GAAP requires an entity to separate deferred income tax liabilities and assets into current and noncurrent amounts. The current requirement that deferred tax liabilities and assets of a tax-paying component of an entity be offset and presented as a single amount is not affected by the amendments in this ASU. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption is permitted. The adoption of ASU 2015-17 is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, “Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory,” to reduce the complexity in accounting for inventory. This ASU requires entities to measure inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value, replacing the market value approach that required floor and ceiling considerations. This guidance for public entities is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-11 to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)” and issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance in August 2015, March 2016, April 2016, May 2016 and December 2016, within ASU 2015-14, ASU 2016-08, ASU 2016-10, ASU 2016-12, and ASU 2016-20 respectively (ASU 2014-09, ASU 2015-14, ASU 2016-08, ASU 2016-10, ASU 2016-12 and ASU 2016-20 collectively, “Topic 606”). Topic 606 supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP. The core principle of Topic 606 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received for those goods or services. Topic 606 defines a five-step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, it is possible more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing GAAP. These estimates include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation, among others. The guidance is effective for us as of January 2018, the first interim period within fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 2017, using either of two methods: (1) retrospective application of Topic 606 to each prior reporting period presented with the option to elect certain practical expedients as defined within Topic 606 or (2) retrospective application of Topic 606 with the cumulative effect of initially applying Topic 606 recognized at the date of initial application and providing certain additional disclosures as defined per Topic 606. We have developed a project plan for the implementation of ASC 606 and all related ASU’s as of the effective date with further analysis planned during 2017 to complete the implementation plan. Based on our evaluation of a sample of revenue contracts with customers against the requirements of the standard, we believe that the reporting of revenue as principal (gross) or agent (net) will impact our consolidated financial statements. We may sell advertising that includes placement on third party websites that we currently report on a gross basis as principal due to having latitude in establishing the sales price and bearing credit risk. Under new guidance, we will report this revenue net as agent because the third party is primarily responsible for fulfilling the service. Preliminarily, we plan to adopt Topic 606 pursuant to the (1) retrospective application method of Topic 606 and we do not currently believe that there will be a material impact to our revenues upon adoption. We continue to evaluate the impact of our pending adoption of Topic 606 and our preliminary assessments are subject to change.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef