Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid debt instruments, purchased with an initial maturity of three-months or less, to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of our cash and cash equivalents approximated fair value at each balance sheet date.
Trade Accounts Receivable and Unbilled Revenue
Trade accounts receivable, net of allowances: Trade accounts receivable includes amounts billed and due from our customers stated at their net estimated realizable value to be settled in cash. Trade accounts receivable for our self-publishing services represent contractual amounts due under individual payment plans that are adjusted quarterly to exclude unearned or cancellable contracts. Payments are generally due within 30 days of the invoice date.
Unbilled revenue: Unbilled revenue represents revenue recognized in excess of the amounts billed to our customer. Unbilled revenue results from differences in the Broadcast Calendar and the end of the reporting period. The Broadcast Calendar is a uniform billing period adopted by broadcasters, agencies and advertisers for billing and planning functions. The Broadcast Calendar uses a standard broadcast week that starts on Monday and ends on Sunday with month end on the last Sunday of the calendar month. We recognize revenue based on the calendar month end and adjust for unbilled revenue when the Broadcast Calendar billings are at an earlier date as applicable. We bill our customers at the end-of-flight, end of the Broadcast Calendar or at calendar month end, as applicable, with standard payments terms of thirty days.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts to provide for the estimated amount of receivables that may not be collected. The allowance is based on our historical collection experience, the age of the receivables, specific customer information and current economic conditions. Past due balances are generally not written-off until all collection efforts have been exhausted, including use of a collections agency. A considerable amount of judgment is required in assessing the likelihood of ultimate realization of these receivables, including the current creditworthiness of each customer. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected. We do not include extended payment terms in our contracts with customers.
Inventories consist of finished goods including published books and wellness products. Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or market as determined on a First-In First-Out (“FIFO”) cost method.
We record a provision to expense the balance of unsold inventory that we believe to be unrecoverable. We review historical data associated with book and wellness product inventories held by Regnery® Publishing and our e-commerce wellness entities, as well as our own experiences to estimate the fair value of inventory on hand. Our analysis includes a review of actual sales returns, our allowances, royalty reserves, overall economic conditions and product demand. We regularly monitor actual performance to our estimates and make adjustments as necessary. Estimated inventory reserves may be adjusted, either favorably or unfavorably, if factors such as the historical data we used to calculate these estimates do not properly reflect future returns or as a result of changes in economic conditions of the customer and/or the market. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Property and Equipment
We account for property and equipment in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360-10, Property, Plant and Equipment. Property and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost represents the historical cost of acquiring the asset, including the costs necessarily incurred to bring it to the condition and location necessary for its intended use. For assets constructed for our own use, such as towers and buildings that are discrete projects for which costs are separately accumulated and for which construction takes considerable time, we record capitalized interest. The amount capitalized is the cost that could have been avoided had the asset not been constructed and is based on the average accumulated expenditures incurred over the capitalization period at the weighted average rate applicable to our outstanding variable rate debt. We capitalized interest of $0.1 million and $0.2 million during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Improvements are capitalized if they extend the life of the asset or enhance the quality or ability of the asset to benefit operations. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives as follows:
The carrying value of property and equipment is evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and business units for indicators of impairment. When indicators of impairment are present, and the cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets is less than the carrying value, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of the assets is recorded. See Note 6—Property and Equipment.
Internally Developed Software and Website Development Costs
We capitalize costs incurred during the application development stage related to the development of internal-use software as specified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 350-40 Internal-Use Software. Capitalized costs are generally depreciated over the estimated useful life of three years. Costs incurred related to the conceptual design and maintenance of internal-use software are expensed as incurred. Website development activities include planning, design and development of graphics and content for new websites and operation of existing sites. Costs incurred that involve providing additional functions and features to the website are capitalized. Costs associated with website planning, maintenance, content development and training are expensed as incurred. We capitalized $2.1 million and $3.7 million during the years ended December 31, 2018, and 2017, related to internally developed software and website development costs. Depreciation expense of amounts capitalized was $2.8 million for each of the years ending December 31, 2018, and 2017.
We account for broadcast licenses in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350 Intangibles—Goodwill and Other. We do not amortize broadcast licenses, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that the value may be impaired. We perform out annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter or each year as discussed in Note 7—Broadcast Licenses.
We account for goodwill in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350 Intangibles—Goodwill and Other. We do not amortize goodwill, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired. We perform our annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year, which coincides with our budget and planning process for the upcoming year as discussed in Note 8—Goodwill.
Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
We account for mastheads in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350 Intangibles—Goodwill and Other. We do not amortize mastheads, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired. We perform our annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year as discussed in Note 9—Other Indefinite Lived Intangible Assets.
Amortizable Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization. Typically, intangible assets are acquired in conjunction with the acquisition of broadcast entities, digital media entities and publishing entities. These intangibles are amortized using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
The carrying value of our amortizable intangible assets are evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and businesses for indicators of impairment. In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360 Property, Plant and Equipment, when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets are less than the carrying amounts of these assets, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of these assets is recorded, if necessary. No adjustments to the carrying amounts of our amortizable intangible assets were necessary during the year ended December 31, 2018.
Deferred Financing Costs
Debt issue costs are amortized to non-cash interest expense over the term of the agreement using the effective interest method.
On May 19, 2017, we closed on a private offering of $255.0 million aggregate principal amount of 6.75% senior secured notes due 2024 (the “Notes”) and concurrently entered into a five-year $30.0 million senior secured asset-based revolving credit facility, which includes a $5.0 million subfacility for standby letters of credit and a $7.5 million subfacility for swingline loans (“ABL Facility”) due May 19, 2022.
We incurred debt issuance costs of $6.3 million that were recorded as a reduction of the Note proceeds that are being amortized to non-cash interest expense over the life of the Notes using the effective interest method. We incurred debt issue costs of $0.7 million that were recorded as an asset and are being amortized to non-cash interest expense over the term of the ABL Facility using the effective interest method. See Note 11—Long-Term Debt.
Income Tax Valuation Allowances (Deferred Taxes)
We account for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740 Income Taxes. In preparing our consolidated financial statements, we estimate our income tax liability in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate by estimating our actual current tax exposure and assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and financial statement purposes. We calculate our current and deferred tax provisions based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed during the subsequent year. Adjustments based on filed returns are generally recorded in the period when the tax returns are filed and the tax implications are known. Tax law and rate changes are reflected in the income tax provision in the period in which such changes are enacted.
We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. We consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies in assessing the need for a valuation allowance. In the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be charged to earnings in the period in which we make such a determination. Likewise, if we later determine that it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets would be realized, we would reverse the applicable portion of the previously provided valuation allowance.
For financial reporting purposes, we recorded a valuation allowance of $5.4 million as of December 31, 2018 to offset the deferred tax assets related to the state net operating loss carryforwards. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Act”) was signed into law making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code. Changes include, but are not limited to, a corporate tax rate decrease from 35% to 21% effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. We have calculated the impact of the Act in our year ending December 31, 2018 income tax provision in accordance with our understanding of the Act and guidance available as of the date of this filing.
Income Taxes and Uncertain Tax Positions
We are subject to audit and review by various taxing jurisdictions. We may recognize liabilities on our financial statements for positions taken on uncertain tax positions. When tax returns are filed, it is highly certain that some positions taken would be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, while others may be subject to uncertainty about the merits of the position taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. The benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, we believe it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Such positions are deemed to be unrecognized tax benefits and a corresponding liability is established on the balance sheet. It is inherently difficult and subjective to estimate such amounts, as this requires us to make estimates based on the various possible outcomes.
We review and reevaluate uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. Changes in assumptions may result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we did not have any material unrecognized tax benefits recorded. Our evaluation was performed for all tax years that remain subject to examination, which range from 2014 through 2017. There is currently one tax examination in process. In August 2017, we received a letter notifying us that the City of New York is initiating an audit of our tax returns for years 2013 and 2014. As of December 31, 2018, we are still currently under audit. We do not anticipate the outcome to be material nor significant.
Effective Tax Rate
Our provision for income tax as a percentage of operating income before taxes, or our effective tax rate, may be impacted by:
Our annual effective tax rate may also be materially impacted by tax expense associated with non-amortizable assets such as broadcast licenses and goodwill as well as changes in the deferred tax valuation allowance. An impairment loss for financial statement purposes will result in an income tax benefit during the period incurred as the amortization of broadcasting licenses and goodwill is deductible for income tax purposes.
We account for business acquisitions in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting as specified in FASB ASC Topic 805 Business Combinations. The total acquisition consideration is allocated to assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values as of the date of the transaction. The total acquisition consideration is equal to the sum of all cash payments, the fair value of any deferred payments and promissory notes, and the present value of any estimated contingent earn-out consideration. Transactions that do not meet the definition of a business in ASU 2017-01 Business Combinations (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business are recorded as asset purchases. Asset purchases are recognized based on their cost to acquire, including transaction costs. The cost to acquire an asset group is allocated to the individual assets acquired based on their relative fair value with no goodwill recognized.
Estimates of the fair value include discounted estimated cash flows to be generated by the assets and their expected useful lives based on historical experience, market trends and any synergies believed to be achieved from the acquisition. Acquisitions may include contingent consideration, the fair value of which is estimated as of the acquisition date as the present value of the expected contingent payments as determined using weighted probabilities of the payment amounts. The fair value measurement is based on significant inputs that are not observable in the market and thus represent a Level 3 measurement as defined in in Note 12—Fair Value Measurements.
We may retain a third-party appraiser to estimate the fair value of the acquired net assets as of the acquisition date. As part of the valuation and appraisal process, the third-party appraiser prepares a report assigning estimated fair values to the various assets acquired. These fair value estimates are subjective in nature and require careful consideration and judgment. Management reviews the third-party reports for reasonableness of the assigned values. We believe that these valuations and analysis provide appropriate estimates of the fair value for the net assets acquired as of the acquisition date.
The initial valuations for business acquisitions are subject to refinement during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date. During this measurement period, we may retroactively record adjustments to the net assets acquired based on additional information obtained for items that existed as of the acquisition date. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period, any adjustments are reflected in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. To date, we have not recorded adjustments to the estimated fair values used in our business acquisition consideration during or after the measurement period.
Property and equipment are recorded at the estimated fair value and depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Finite-lived intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair value and amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Goodwill, which represents the organizational systems and procedures in place to ensure the effective operation of the entity, may also be recorded and tested for impairment.
Costs associated with business acquisitions, such as consulting and legal fees, are expensed as incurred. We recognized costs associated with acquisitions of $0.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $0.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2017, which are included in unallocated corporate expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Contingent Earn-Out Consideration
Our acquisitions may include contingent earn-out consideration as part of the purchase price under which we will make future payments to the seller upon the achievement of certain benchmarks. The fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration is estimated as of the acquisition date at the present value of the expected contingent payments to be made using a probability-weighted discounted cash flow model for probabilities of possible future payments. The present value of the expected future payouts is accreted to interest expense over the earn-out period. The fair value estimates use unobservable inputs that reflect our own assumptions as to the ability of the acquired business to meet the targeted benchmarks and discount rates used in the calculations. The unobservable inputs are defined in FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, as Level 3 inputs discussed in detail in Note 12.
We review the probabilities of possible future payments to the estimated fair value of any contingent earn-out consideration on a quarterly basis over the earn-out period. Actual results are compared to the estimates and probabilities of achievement used in our forecasts. Should actual results of the acquired business increase or decrease as compared to our estimates and assumptions, the estimated fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration liability will increase or decrease, up to the contracted limit, as applicable. Changes in the estimated fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration are reflected in our results of operations in the period in which they are identified. Changes in the estimated fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration may materially impact and cause volatility in our operating results.
We recorded a net increase to our estimated contingent earn-out liabilities of $76,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018 and a net decrease of $23,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017. The changes in our estimates reflect volatility from variables, such as revenue growth, page views and session time as discussed in Note 4—Contingent Earn-Out Consideration.
Partial Self-Insurance on Employee Health Plan
We provide health insurance benefits to eligible employees under a self-insured plan whereby we pay actual medical claims subject to certain stop loss limits. We record self-insurance liabilities based on actual claims filed and an estimate of those claims incurred but not reported. Our estimates are based on historical data and probabilities. Any projection of losses concerning our liability is subject to a high degree of variability. Among the causes of this variability are unpredictable external factors such as future inflation rates, changes in severity, benefit level changes, medical costs and claim settlement patterns. Should the actual amount of claims increase or decrease beyond what was anticipated, we may adjust our future reserves. Our self-insurance liability was $0.8 million and $0.7 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates.
The following table presents the changes in our partial self-insurance reserves.
We are exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates. We actively monitor these fluctuations and may use derivative instruments primarily for the purpose of reducing the impact of changing interest rates on our variable rate debt and to reduce the impact of changing fair market values on our fixed rate debt. In accordance with our risk management strategy, we may use derivative instruments only for the purpose of managing risk associated with an asset, liability, committed transaction, or probable forecasted transaction that is identified by management. Our use of derivative instruments may result in short-term gains or losses that may increase the volatility of our earnings.
Under FASB ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, the effective portion of the gain or loss on a derivative instrument designated and qualifying as a cash flow hedging instrument shall be reported as a component of other comprehensive income (outside earnings) and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecasted transaction affects earnings. The remaining gain or loss on the derivative instrument, if any, shall be recognized currently in earnings.
On May 19, 2017, we entered into a new senior credit facility, which is an asset-based revolving credit facility (“ABL Facility”). The ABL Facility is a five-year $30.0 million (subject to borrowing base) revolving credit facility maturing on May 19, 2022. Amounts outstanding under the ABL Facility bear interest at a rate based on LIBOR plus a spread of 1.50% to 2.0% per annum based on a pricing grid depending on the average available amount for the most recently ended quarter or at the Base Rate (as defined in the Credit Agreement) plus a spread of 0.50% to 1.0% per annum based on a pricing grid depending on the average available amount for the most recently ended quarter. Additionally, we pay a commitment fee on the unused balance of 0.25% to 0.375% per year. If an event of default occurs, the interest rate may increase by 2.00% per annum. Amounts outstanding under the ABL Facility may be paid and then re-borrowed at our discretion without penalty or premium.
As of December 31, 2018, we did not have any outstanding derivative instruments.
Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
As of December 31, 2018, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, trade accounts receivables, accounts payable, accrued expenses and accrued interest approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of such instruments. The carrying value of the ABL approximates fair value as the related interest rates approximate rates currently available to the company. The carrying amount of the Notes at December 31, 2018 was $238.6 million, compared to the estimated fair value of $218.3 million based on the prevailing interest rates and trading activity of our Notes. See Note 12—Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures.
Long-term Debt and Debt Covenant Compliance
Our classification of outstanding borrowings on our Notes as long-term debt on our balance sheet is based on our assessment that, under the Indenture and after considering our projected operating results and cash flows for the coming year, no principal payments are required to be made within the next twelve months. The Notes have a term of seven years, maturing on June 1, 2024. We may redeem the Notes, in whole or in part, at any time on or before June 1, 2020 at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes plus a “make-whole” premium as of, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date. At any time on or after June 1, 2020, we may redeem some or all of the Notes at the redemption prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount to be redeemed) set forth in the Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date. In addition, we may redeem up to 35% of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes before June 1, 2020 with the net cash proceeds from certain equity offerings at a redemption price of 106.75% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date. We may also redeem up to 10% of the aggregate original principal amount of the Notes per twelve month period before June 1, 2020 at a redemption price of 103% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date.
We report outstanding balances on the ABL Facility as short-term regardless of the maturity date based on use of the ABL Facility to fund ordinary and customary operating cash needs with frequent repayments.
Our projections of operating results and cash flows for the coming year are estimates dependent upon a number of factors including but not limited to developments in the markets in which we are operating in and varying economic and political factors. Accordingly, these projections are inherently uncertain and our actual results could differ from these estimates.
Reserves for Royalty Advances
Royalties due to book authors are paid in advance and capitalized. Royalties are expensed as the related book revenues are earned or when we determine that future recovery of the royalty is not likely. We reviewed historical data associated with royalty advances, earnings and recoverability based on actual results of Regnery® Publishing. Historically, the longer the unearned portion of an advance remains outstanding, the less likely it is that we will recover the advance through the sale of the book. We apply this historical experience to outstanding royalty advances to estimate the likelihood of recovery. A provision was established to expense the balance of any unearned advance which we believe is not recoverable. Our analysis also considers other discrete factors, such as death of an author, any decision to not pursue publication of a title, poor market demand or other relevant factors. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in various legal proceedings, lawsuits, arbitration and other claims which are complex in nature and have outcomes that are difficult to predict. Consequently, we are unable to ascertain the ultimate aggregate amount of monetary liability or the financial impact with respect to these matters.
We record contingency reserves to the extent we conclude that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the related loss can be reasonably estimated. The establishment of the reserve is based on a review of all relevant factors, the advice of legal counsel, and the subjective judgment of management. The reserves we have recorded to date have not been material to our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
While we believe that the final resolution of any known maters, individually and in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect upon our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows, it is possible that we could incur additional losses. We maintain insurance that may provide coverage for such matters. Future claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could have a material adverse effect upon our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows, including losses due to costly litigation and losses due to matters that require significant amounts of management time that can result in the diversion of significant operational resources. See Note 14—Commitments and Contingencies.
We adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC Topic 606”) on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method. Our operating results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC Topic 606, while prior period amounts continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under Topic 605. The timing and measurement of our revenues under ASC Topic 606 is similar to that recognized under previous guidance, accordingly, the adoption of ASC Topic 606 did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof at adoption or in the current period. There were no changes in our opening retained earnings balance as a result of the adoption of ASC Topic 606.
ASC Topic 606 is a comprehensive revenue recognition model that requires revenue to be recognized when control of the promised goods or services are transferred to our customers at an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive. Application of ASC Topic 606 requires us to use more judgment and make more estimates than under former guidance. Application of ASC Topic 606 requires a five-step model applicable to all revenue streams as follows:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer
A contract with a customer exists when (i) we enter into an enforceable contract with a customer that defines each party’s rights regarding the goods or services to be transferred and identifies the payment terms related to these goods or services, (ii) the contract has commercial substance and, (iii) we determine that collection of substantially all consideration for goods or services that are transferred is probable based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration.
We apply judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer.
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract
Performance obligations promised in a contract are identified based on the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer that are both capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the goods or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available from third parties or from us, and are distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the goods or services is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.
When a contract includes multiple promised goods or services, we apply judgment to determine whether the promised goods or services are capable of being distinct and are distinct within the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met, the promised goods or services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation.
Determination of the transaction price
The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which we will be entitled to receive in exchange for transferring goods or services to our customer. We estimate any variable consideration included in the transaction price using the expected value method that requires the use of significant estimates for discounts, cancellation periods, refunds and returns. Variable consideration is described in detail below.
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative Stand-Alone Selling Price (“SSP,”) basis. We determine SSP based on the price at which the performance obligation would be sold separately. If the SSP is not observable, we estimate the SSP based on available information, including market conditions and any applicable internally approved pricing guidelines.
Recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation
We recognize revenue at the point in time that the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring the promised goods or services to our customer.
Principal versus Agent Considerations
When another party is involved in providing goods or services to our customer, we apply the principal versus agent guidance in ASC Topic 606 to determine if we are the principal or an agent to the transaction. When we control the specified goods or services before they are transferred to our customer, we report revenue gross, as principal. If we do not control the goods or services before they are transferred to our customer, revenue is reported net of the fees paid to the other party, as agent. Our evaluation to determine if we control the goods or services within ASC Topic 606 includes the following indicators:
We are primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified good or service.
When we are primarily responsible for providing the goods and services, such as when the other party is acting on our behalf, we have indication that we are the principal to the transaction. We consider if we may terminate our relationship with the other party at any time without penalty or without permission from our customer.
We have inventory risk before the specified good or service has been transferred to a customer or after transfer of control to the customer.
We may commit to obtaining the services of another party with or without an existing contract with our customer. In these situations, we have risk of loss as principal for any amount due to the other party regardless of the amount(s) we earn as revenue from our customer.
The entity has discretion in establishing the price for the specified good or service.
We have discretion in establishing the price our customer pays for the specified goods or services.
Contract Assets—Costs to Obtain a Contract: We capitalize commissions paid to sales personnel in our self-publishing business when customer contracts are signed and advance payment is received. These capitalized costs are recorded as prepaid commission expense in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The amount capitalized is incremental to the contract and would not have been incurred absent the execution of the customer contract. Commissions paid upon the initial acquisition of a contract are expensed at the point in time that related revenue is recognized. Prepaid commission expenses are periodically reviewed for impairment. At December 31, 2018, our prepaid commission expense was $0.7 million.
Contract liabilities consist of customer advance payments and billings in excess of revenue recognized. We may receive payments from our customers in advance of completing our performance obligations. Additionally, new customers, existing customers without approved credit terms and authors purchasing specific self-publishing services, are required to make payments in advance of the delivery of the products or performance of the services. We record contract liabilities equal to the amount of payments received in excess of revenue recognized, including payments that are refundable if the customer cancels the contract according to the contract terms. Contract liabilities were historically recorded under the caption “deferred revenue” and are reported as current liabilities on our consolidated financial statements when the time to fulfill the performance obligations under terms of our contracts is less than one year. Long-term contract liabilities represent the amount of payments received in excess of revenue earned, including those that are refundable, when the time to fulfill the performance obligation is greater than one year. Our long-term liabilities consist of subscriptions with a term of two-yearsfor which some customers have purchased and paid for multiple years.
Significant changes in our contract liabilities balances during the period are as follows:
We expect to satisfy these performance obligations as follows:
Significant Financing Component
The length of our typical sales agreement is less than 12 months, however, we may sell subscriptions with a two-year term. The balance of our long-term contract liabilities represent the unsatisfied performance obligations for subscriptions with a remaining term in excess of one year. We review long-term contract liabilities that are expected to be completed in excess of one year to assess whether the contract contains a significant financing component. The balance includes subscriptions that will be satisfied at various dates between July 1, 2019 and September 30, 2020. The difference between the promised consideration and the cash selling price of the publications is not significant. Therefore, we have concluded that subscriptions do not contain a significant financing component under ASC Topic 606.
Our self-publishing contracts may exceed a one year term due to the length of time for an author to submit and approve a manuscript for publication. The author may pay for publishing services in installments over the production time line with payments due in advance of performance. The timing of the transfer of goods and services under self-publishing arrangements are at the discretion of the author and based on future events that are not substantially within our control. We require advance payments to provide us with protection from incurring costs for products that are unique and only sellable to the author. Based on these considerations, we have concluded that our self-publishing contracts do not contain a significant financing component under ASC Topic 606.
Similar to former revenue recognition guidance, we continue to make significant estimates related to variable consideration at the point of sale, including estimates for refunds and product returns. Under ASC Topic 606, estimates of variable consideration are to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances, including when it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of any estimated cumulative revenue will not occur.
We enter into agreements under which the amount of revenue we earn is contingent upon the amount of money raised by our customer over the contract term. Our customer is typically a charity or programmer that purchases blocks of programming time or spots to generate revenue from our audience members. Contract terms can range from a few weeks to a few months, depending the charity or programmer. If the campaign does not generate a pre-determined level of donations or revenue to our customer, the consideration that we expect to be entitled to may vary above a minimum base level per the contract. Historically, under ASC Topic 605, we reported variable consideration as revenue when the amount was fixed and determinable. Under ASC Topic 606, variable consideration is to be estimated using the expected value or the most likely amount to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.
Based on the constraints for using estimates of variable consideration within ASC Topic 606, and our historical experience with these campaigns, we will continue to recognize revenue at the base amount of the campaign with variable consideration recognized when the uncertainty of each campaign is resolved. These constraints include: (1) the amount of consideration received is highly susceptible to factors outside of our influence, specifically the extent to which our audience donates or contributes to our customer or programmer, (2) the length of time in which the uncertainty about the amount of consideration expected is to be resolved, and (3) our experience has shown these contracts have a large number and broad range of possible outcomes.
Trade and Barter Transactions
In broadcasting, trade or barter agreements are commonly used to reduce cash expenses by exchanging advertising time for goods or services. We may enter barter agreements to exchange air time or digital advertising for goods or services that can be used in our business or that can be sold to our audience under Listener Purchase Programs. The terms of these barter agreements permit us to preempt the barter air time or digital campaign in favor of customers who purchase the air time or digital campaign for cash. The value of these non-cash exchanges is included in revenue in an amount equal to the fair value of the goods or services we receive. Each transaction must be reviewed to determine that the products, supplies and/or services we receive have economic substance, or value to us. We record barter operating expenses upon receipt and usage of the products, supplies and services, as applicable. We record barter revenue as advertising spots or digital campaigns are delivered, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Barter revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the programmer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Trade and barter revenues and expenses were as follows:
Practical Expedients and Exemptions
We have elected certain practical expedients and policy elections as permitted under ASC Topic 606 as follows:
The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by revenue source for each of our three operating segments:
A summary of each of our revenue streams under ASC Topic 606 is as follows:
Block Programming. We recognize revenue from the sale of blocks of air time to program producers that typically range from 121/2, 25 or 50-minutes of time. We separate block program revenue into three categories, National, Local and Infomercial revenue. Our stations are classified by format, including Christian Teaching and Talk, News Talk, Contemporary Christian Music, Spanish Language Christian Teaching and Talk and Business. National and local programming content is complementary to our station format while infomercials are closely associated with long-form advertisements. Block Programming revenue may include variable consideration for charities and programmers that purchase blocks of air time to generate donations and contributions from our audience. Block programming revenue is recognized at the time of broadcast, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Programming revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the programmer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Spot Advertising. We recognize revenue from the sale of air time to local and national advertisers who purchase spot commercials of varying lengths. Spot Advertising may include variable consideration for charities and programmers that purchase spots to generate donations and contributions from our audience. Advertising revenue is recognized at the time of broadcast, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Advertising revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the advertiser, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Network Revenue. Network revenue includes the sale of advertising time on our national network and fees earned from the syndication of programming on our national network. Network revenue is recognized at the time of broadcast, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Network revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Digital Advertising. We recognize revenue from the sale of banner advertising on our owned and operated websites and on our own and operated mobile applications. Each of our radio stations, our digital media entities and certain publishing entities have custom websites and mobile applications that generate digital advertising revenue. Digital advertising revenue is recognized at the time that the banner display is delivered, or the number of impressions delivered meets the advertiser’s previously agreed-upon performance criteria, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Digital advertising revenue is reported on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Broadcast digital advertising revenue consists of local digital advertising, such as the sale of banner advertisements on our owned and operated websites, the sale of advertisements on our own and operated mobile applications, and advertisements in digital newsletters that we produce, as well an national digital advertising, or the sale of custom digital advertising solutions, such as web pages and social media campaigns, that we offer to our customers. Advertising revenue is recorded on a gross basis unless an agency represents the advertiser, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Salem Surround. During 2018, we launched a national multimedia advertising agency with locations in 35 markets across the United States. Salem Surround offers a comprehensive suite of digital marketing services to develop and execute audience-based marketing strategies for clients on both the national and local level. Salem Surround specializes in digital marketing services for each of our radio stations and websites as well as provides a full-service digital marketing strategy for each of our clients. In our role as a digital agency, our sales team provides our customers with integrated digital advertising solutions that optimize the performance of their campaign, which we view as one performance obligation. Our advertising campaigns are designed to be “white label” agreements between Salem and our advertiser, meaning we provide special care and attention to the details of the campaign. We provide custom digital product offerings, including tools for metasearch, retargeting, website design, reputation management, online listing services, and social media marketing. Digital advertising solutions may include third-party websites, such as Google or Facebook, which can be included in a digital advertising social media campaign. We manage all aspects of the digital campaign, including social media placements, review and approval of target audiences, and the monitoring of actual results to make modifications as needed. We may contract directly with a third-party, however, we are responsible for delivering the campaign results to our customer with or without the third-party. We are responsible for any payments due to the third-party regardless of the campaign results and without regard to the status of payment from our customer. We have discretion in setting the price to our customer without input or approval from the third-party. Accordingly, revenue is reported gross, as principal, as the performance obligation is delivered, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation.
Digital Streaming. We recognize revenue from the sale of advertisements and from the placement of ministry content that is streamed on our owned and operated websites and on our owned and operated mobile applications. Each of our radio stations, our digital media entities and certain publishing entities have custom websites and mobile applications that generate streaming revenue. Digital streaming revenue is recognized at the time that the content is delivered, or when the number of impressions delivered meets our customer’s previously agreed-upon performance criteria. Delivery of the content represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Streaming revenue is reported on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Digital Downloads and e-books. We recognize revenue from sale of downloaded materials, including videos, song tracks, sermons, content archives and e-books. Payments for downloaded materials are due in advance of the download, however, the download is often instant upon confirmation of payment. Digital download revenue is recognized at the time of download, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue is recorded at the gross amount due from the customer. All sales are final with no allowances made for returns.
Subscriptions. We recognize revenue from the sale of subscriptions for financial publication digital newsletters, digital magazines, podcast subscriptions for on-air content, and subscriptions to our print magazine. Subscription terms typically range from three months to two years, with a money-back guarantee for the first 30 days. Refunds after the first 30 day period are considered on a pro-rata basis based on the number of publications issued and delivered. Payments are due in advance of delivery and can be made in full upon subscribing or in quarterly installments. Cash received in advance of the subscription term, including amounts that are refundable, is recorded in contract labilities. Revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription term at the point in time that each publication is transmitted or shipped, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue is reported net of estimated cancellations, which are based on our experience and historical cancellation rates during the cancellable period.
Book Sales. We recognize revenue from the sale of books upon shipment, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing the performance obligation. Revenue is recorded at the gross amount due from the customer, net of estimated sales returns and allowances based on our historical experience. Major new title releases represent a significant portion of the revenue in the current period. Print-based consumer books are sold on a fully-returnable basis. We do not record assets or inventory for the value of returned books as they are considered used regardless of the condition returned. Our experience with unsold or returned books is that their resale value is insignificant and they are often destroyed or disposed of.
e-Commerce. We recognize revenue from the sale of products sold through our digital platform, including wellness products through Newport Natural Health. Payments for products are due in advance shipping. We record a contract liability when we receive customer payments in advance of shipment. The time frame from receipt of payment to shipment is typically one business day based on the time that an order is placed as compared to fulfillment. E-Commerce revenue is recognized at the time of shipment, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue is reported net of estimated returns, which are based on our experience and historical return rates. Returned products are recorded in inventory if they are unopened and re-saleable with a corresponding reduction in the cost of goods sold.
Self-Publishing Fees. We recognize revenue from self-publishing services through Salem Author Services (“SAS”), including book publishing and support services to independent authors. Services include book cover design, interior layout, printing, distribution, marketing services and editing for print books and eBooks. As each book and related support services are unique to each author, authors must make payments in advance of the performance. Payments are typically made in installments over the expected production time line for each publication. We record contract liabilities equal to the amount of payments received, including those amounts that are fully or partially refundable. Contract liabilities were historically recorded under the caption “deferred revenue” and are reported as current liabilities or long term liabilities on our consolidated financial statements based on the time to fulfill the performance obligations under terms of the contract. Refunds are limited based on the percentage completion of each publishing project.
Revenue is recognized upon completion of each performance obligation, which represents the point in time that control of the product is transferred to the author, thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue is recorded at the net amount due from the author, including discounts based on the service package.
Advertising—Print. We recognize revenue from the sale of print magazine advertisements. Revenue is recognized upon delivery of the print magazine which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing the performance obligation. Revenue is reported on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
Other Revenues. Other revenues include various sources, such as event revenue, listener purchase programs, talent fees for on-air hosts, rental income for studios and towers, production services, and shipping and handling fees. We recognize event revenue, including fees earned for ticket sales and sponsorships, when the event occurs, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Revenue for all other products and services is recorded as the products or services are delivered or performed, which represents the point in time that control is transferred to the customer thereby completing our performance obligation. Other revenue is reported on a gross basis unless an agency represents the customer, in which case, revenue is reported net of the commission retained by the agency.
We account for stock-based compensation under the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation. We record equity awards with stock-based compensation measured at the fair value of the award as of the grant date. We determine the fair value of our options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model that requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price volatility and expected term of the options granted. The exercise price for options is equal to the closing market price of Salem Media Group common stock as of the date of grant. We use the straight-line attribution method to recognize share-based compensation costs over the expected service period of the award. Upon exercise, cancellation, forfeiture, or expiration of stock options, or upon vesting or forfeiture of restricted stock awards, deferred tax assets for options and restricted stock awards with multiple vesting dates are eliminated for each vesting period on a first-in, first-out basis as if each vesting period was a separate award. See Note 15—Stock Incentive Plan.
Advertising and Promotional Cost
Costs of media advertising and associated production costs are expensed as incurred and amounted to approximately $10.9 million and $12.0 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
We lease broadcast towers, transmitter sites and office space throughout the United States. We review each lease agreement upon inception to determine the appropriate classification of the lease as a capital lease or operating lease based on the factors listed in FASB ASC Topic 840 Leases. Our current lease terms generally range from one to twenty-five years with rent expense recorded on a straight-line basis for financial reporting purposes. Where leases include rent holidays, rent escalations, rent concessions and leasehold improvement incentives, the value of these incentives are amortized over the lease term including anticipated renewal periods. Rent expense, exclusive of intercompany leases that are eliminated from our consolidated operating results, was $15.4 million and $15.5 million, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Deferred rental revenue was $4.1 million and $4.3 million as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
We may construct or otherwise invest in leasehold improvements to properties. The costs of these leasehold improvements are capitalized and depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the improvement or the lease term including anticipated renewal periods.
(Gain) Loss on the Disposition of Assets
We record gains or losses on the disposition of assets equal to the proceeds, if any, as compared to the net book value. Exchange transactions are accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 845 Non-Monetary Transactions.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded a $4.7 million pre-tax loss that includes a $2.4 million pre-tax loss on the sale of radio station KGBI-FM in Omaha, Nebraska, a $1.8 million pre-tax loss on the sale of radio stations KCRO-AM and KOTK-AM in Omaha, Nebraska, a $0.3 million pre-tax loss on the sale of land in Lakeside, California, and a $0.2 million pre-tax loss on the sale of land in Covina, California offset by a $0.2 million pre-tax gain on the sale of radio station WBIX-AM in Boston, Massachusetts.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, we recorded a $3.9 million pre-tax loss, including a $4.7 million estimated loss for the pending sale of WQVN-AM (formerly WKAT-AM) in Miami, Florida, a $77,000 loss related to transmitter equipment in Dallas, Texas that was no longer in use and a $2,000 net loss for equipment damaged in our Tampa, Florida market as a result of hurricane Irma in September 2017 that was offset by a $0.5 million gain from the sale of a former transmitter site in our Dallas, Texas market, a $0.4 million gain on the sale of the WSPZ-AM tower site, and a $16,000 net gain from disposals within our print magazine segment.
We regularly review underperforming assets to determine if a sale or disposal might be a better way to monetize the assets. When a station, group of stations, or other asset group is considered for sale or disposal, we review the transaction to determine if or when the entity qualifies as a discontinued operation in accordance with the criteria of FASB ASC Topic 205-20 Discontinued Operations.
Basic and Diluted Net Earnings Per Share
Basic net earnings per share has been computed using the weighted average number of Class A and Class B shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period plus the dilutive effects of stock options.
Options to purchase 1,980,972 and 1,428,462 shares of Class A common stock were outstanding at December 31, 2018 and 2017. Diluted weighted average shares outstanding exclude outstanding stock options whose exercise price is in excess of the average price of the company’s stock price. These options are excluded from the respective computations of diluted net income or loss per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive. The number of anti-dilutive shares as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 was 1,672,217 and 814,556.
The following table sets forth the shares used to compute basic and diluted net earnings per share for the periods indicated:
We have three operating segments: (1) Broadcast, (2) Digital Media, and (3) Publishing, which also qualify as reportable segments. Our operating segments reflect how our chief operating decision makers, which we define as a collective group of senior executives, assesses the performance of each operating segment and determines the appropriate allocations of resources to each segment. We continually review our operating segment classifications to align with operational changes in our business and may make changes as necessary.
We measure and evaluate our operating segments based on operating income and operating expenses that do not include allocations of costs related to corporate functions, such as accounting and finance, human resources, legal, tax and treasury, which are reported as unallocated corporate expenses in our consolidated statements of operations included in this annual report on Form 10-K. We also exclude costs such as amortization, depreciation, taxes and interest expense.
Variable Interest Entities
We may enter into agreements or investments with other entities that could qualify as variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 810 Consolidation. A VIE is consolidated in the financial statements if we are deemed to be the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary is the entity that holds the majority of the beneficial interests in the VIE, either explicitly or implicitly. A VIE is an entity for which the primary beneficiary’s interest in the entity can change with variations in factors other than the amount of investment in the entity. We perform our evaluation for VIE’s upon entry into the agreement or investment. We re-evaluate the VIE when or if events occur that could change the status of the VIE.
We may enter into lease arrangements with entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties. We believe that the requirements of FASB ASC Topic 810 do not apply to these entities because the lease arrangements do not contain explicit guarantees of the residual value of the real estate, do not contain purchase options or similar provisions and the leases are at terms that do not vary materially from leases that would have been available with unaffiliated parties. Additionally, we do not have an equity interest in the entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties and we do not guarantee debt of the entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties.
We also enter into Local Marketing Agreements (“LMAs”) or Time Brokerage Agreements (“TBAs”) contemporaneously with entering into an Asset Purchase Agreement (“APA”) to acquire or sell a radio station. Typically, both LMAs and TBAs are contractual agreements under which the station owner/licensee makes airtime available to a programmer/licensee in exchange for a fee and reimbursement of certain expenses. LMAs and TBAs are subject to compliance with the antitrust laws and the communications laws, including the requirement that the licensee must maintain independent control over the station and, in particular, its personnel, programming, and finances. The FCC has held that such agreements do not violate the communications laws as long as the licensee of the station receiving programming from another station maintains ultimate responsibility for, and control over, station operations and otherwise ensures compliance with the communications laws.
The requirements of FASB ASC Topic 810 may apply to entities under LMAs or TBAs, depending on the facts and circumstances related to each transaction. As of December 31, 2018, we did not have implicit or explicit arrangements that required consolidation under the guidance in FASB ASC Topic 810.
Concentrations of Business Risks
We derive a substantial part of our total revenues from the sale of advertising. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, 36.4% and 36.8%, respectively, of our total broadcast revenues were generated from the sale of broadcast advertising. We are particularly dependent on revenue from stations in the Los Angeles and Dallas markets, which generated 14.8% and 19.6% for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 15.4% and 19.3% for the year ended December 31, 2017. Because substantial portions of our revenues are derived from local advertisers in these key markets, our ability to generate revenues in those markets could be adversely affected by local or regional economic downturns.
Concentrations of Credit Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents; trade accounts receivable and derivative instruments. We place our cash and cash equivalents with high quality financial institutions. Such balances may be in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits. To manage the related credit exposure, we continually monitor the credit worthiness of the financial institutions where we have deposits. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivable are limited due to the wide variety of customers and markets in which we provide services, as well as the dispersion of our operations across many geographic areas. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers, but generally do not require collateral to support customer receivables. We establish an allowance for doubtful accounts based on various factors including the credit risk of specific customers, age of receivables outstanding, historical trends, economic conditions and other information. Historically, our bad debt expense has been within management’s expectations.
These estimates require the use of judgment as future events and the effect of these events cannot be predicted with certainty. The estimates will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired and as more information is obtained. We evaluate and update our assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and we may consult outside experts to assist as considered necessary.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Changes to accounting principles are established by the FASB in the form of ASUs to the FASB’s Codification. We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. Described below are ASUs that are not yet effective, but may be applicable to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined to not be applicable to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-01, Leases (Topic 842) Codification Improvements, which provides clarification on implementation issues associated with adopting ASU 2016-02. The implementation issues noted in ASU 2019-01 include determining the fair value of the underlying asset by lessors that are not manufacturers or dealers, presentation on the statement of cash flows for sales-type and direct financing leases, and transition disclosures related to Topic 250, Accounting Changes and Error Corrections. We will apply the guidance, if applicable, as of January 1, 2019, the date we adopted ASU 2016-02. Refer to the discussion of ASU 2016-02 below for the impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Tope 818): Clarifying the Interaction Between Topic 808 and Topic 606, which clarifies when transactions between participants in a collaborative arrangement are within the scope of the FASB’s revenue standard, Topic 606. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-17, Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entites, that changes the guidance for determining whether a decision-making fee paid to a decision makers and service providers are variable interests. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract. ASU 2018-15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. ASU 2018-13 removes or modifies certain disclosures and in certain instances requires additional disclosures. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt this standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements which provides a new transition method and a practical expedient for separating components of a lease contract. ASU 2018-11 is intended to reduce the costs and ease the implementation of the new leasing standard for financial statement preparers. The effective date and transition requirements for the amendments related to separating components of a contract are the same as the effective date and transition requirements in ASU 2016-02. We adopted this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2019. Refer to the discussion of ASU 2016-02 below for the impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases. ASU 2018-10 affects narrow aspects of the guidance issued in ASU 2016-02. ASU 2018-10 does not prescribe any new accounting guidance, but instead makes minor improvements and clarifications based on comments and suggestions made by various stakeholders. ASU 2018-10 makes improvements to the following aspects of the guidance in ASC 842: residual value guarantees, rate implicit in the lease, lessee’s reassessment of lease classification, lessor’s reassessment of lease term and purchase option, variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate, investment tax credits, lease term and purchase option, transition guidance related to amounts previously recognized in business combinations, certain transition adjustments, transition guidance for leases previously classified as capital leases under ASC 840, transition guidance related to modifications to leases previously classified as direct financing or sale-type leases under ASC 840, transition guidance related to sale-and-leaseback transactions, impairment of net investment in the lease, unguaranteed residual assets, effect of initial direct costs on rate implicit in the lease and failed sale-and-leaseback transaction. Certain updates are applicable immediately while others provide for a transition period to adopt as part of the next fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2018. We adopted this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2019. Refer to the discussion of ASU 2016-02 below for the impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-09, Codification Improvements. ASU 2018-09 provides minor corrections and clarifications that affect a variety of topics in the Codification. Several updates are effective upon issuance of the update while others have transition guidance for effective dates in the future. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment. ASU 2018-07 aligns the accounting for share based payments granted to non-employees with that of share based payments granted to employees. We adopted this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2019. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement—Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220)—Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. ASU 2018-02 allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“The Act”). Consequently, the amendments eliminate the stranded tax effects resulting from the Act to improve the usefulness of information reported to financial statement users. However, because the amendments only relate to the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Act, the underlying guidance that requires that the effect of a change in tax laws or rates be included in income from continuing operations is not affected. We adopted this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2019. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In January 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-01, Leases (Topic 842) Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842. ASU 2018-01 provides an optional transition practical expedient to not evaluate under Topic 842 existing or expired land easements that were not previously accounted for as leases under the current leases guidance in Topic 840. We adopted this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2019. Refer to the discussion of ASU 2016-02 below for the impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging: Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, which improves the financial reporting of hedging relationships to better align risk management activities in financial statements and make certain targeted improvements to simplify the application of the hedge accounting guidance in current GAAP. We adopted this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2019. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08, Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20), Premium on Purchased Callable Debt Securities, which amends the amortization period for certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium to a shorter period based on the earliest call date. We adopted this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2019. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16 Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory which modifies existing guidance for the accounting for income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers of assets. This ASU requires entities to immediately recognize the tax consequences on intercompany asset transfers (excluding inventory) at the transaction date, rather than deferring the tax consequences under current GAAP. We adopted this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2019. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, which changes the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. For trade and other receivables, held-to-maturity debt securities, loans and other instruments, entities will be required to use a new forward-looking “expected loss” model that will replace today’s “incurred loss” model and generally will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, entities will measure credit losses in a manner similar to current practice, except that the losses will be recognized as an allowance. Subsequent to issuing ASU 2016-13, the FASB issued ASU 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses, for the purpose of clarifying certain aspects of ASU 2016-13. ASU 2018-19 has the same effective date and transition requirements as ASU 2016-13. We plan to adopt this ASU on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), (“ASC 842”) which requires that lessees recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with lease terms greater than twelve months in the balance sheet. ASC 842 distinguishes leases as either a finance lease or an operating lease, that affects how the leases are measured and presented in the statement of operations and statement of cash flows. ASC 842 requires additional disclosures including the significant judgments made by management to provide insight into the revenue and expense to be recognized from existing contracts and the timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. We adopted the new guidance on January 1, 2019. We elected the practical expedients upon transition to retain the existing lease classification and retain the original accounting treatment for any initial direct costs for leases in existence prior to December 31, 2018. We adopted the optional transition method allowing entities to recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of stockholders’ equity in the period of adoption, with no restatement of comparative prior years. We have conducted a review of our existing lease contracts, conducted a review of other agreements that may contain embedded leases, established the necessary changes to our systems, and we are implementing a new software solution designed to account for leases under ASC 842. We continue to validate contracts and the data entered into our software solution to determine the impact that ASC 842 will have on our financial statements and disclosures. We will record right-of-use assets and related lease liabilities for operating leases that will have a material impact on our consolidated balance sheet, with no impact to our results of operations, cash flows or presentation thereof. There were no changes in our current capital lease portfolio, which will be titled “finance leases” under ASC 842. Our existing credit facility stipulates that our covenants are based on GAAP as of the agreement date, therefore, the material impact of recording right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet will not impact our debt covenants.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef