Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid debt instruments, purchased with an initial maturity of three-months or less, to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of our cash and cash equivalents approximated fair value at each balance sheet date.
Accounts Receivable and Unbilled Revenue
Accounts receivable, net of allowances:
Accounts receivable includes amounts billed
and due from our customers stated at their net estimated realizable value. Accounts receivable for our self-publishing services represent contractual amounts due under individual payment plans that are adjusted quarterly to exclude unearned or cancellable contracts.

Unbilled revenue
: Unbilled revenue represents revenue recognized in excess of the amounts billed to our customer. Unbilled revenue results from differences in the Broadcast Calendar and the end of the reporting period. The Broadcast Calendar is a uniform billing period adopted by broadcasters, agencies and advertisers for billing and planning functions. The Broadcast Calendar uses a standard broadcast week that starts on Monday and ends on Sunday with month end on the last Sunday of the calendar month. We recognize revenue based on the calendar month end and adjust for unbilled revenue when the Broadcast Calendar billings are at an earlier date as applicable. We bill our customers at the
end of the Broadcast Calendar or at calendar month end, as applicable, with standard payments
terms of thirty days.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts to provide for the estimated amount of receivables that may not be collected. The allowance is based on our historical collection experience, the age of the receivables, specific customer information and current economic conditions. Past due balances are generally not
until all collection efforts have been exhausted, including use of a collection agency. A considerable amount of judgment is required in assessing the likelihood of ultimate realization of these receivables, including the current creditworthiness of each customer. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected. We do not include extended payment terms in our contracts with customers.
Inventory consists of books published by Regnery
Publishing. Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value as determined on a weighted average cost method. We review historical data and our own experiences to estimate the value of inventory on hand. Our analysis includes reviewing actual sales returns, royalty reserves, overall economic conditions, and demand for each title. We regularly monitor actual performance to our estimates and make adjustments as necessary. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Property and Equipment
We account for property and equipment in accordance with FASB ASC Topic
Property, Plant and Equipment
.” Property and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost represents the historical cost of acquiring the asset, including the costs necessarily incurred to bring it to the condition and location necessary for its intended use. For assets constructed for our own use, such as towers and buildings that are discrete projects for which costs are separately accumulated and for which construction takes considerable time, we record capitalized interest. The amount of interest capitalized is the cost that could have been avoided had the asset not been constructed and is based on the average accumulated expenditures incurred over the capitalization period at the weighted average interest rate applicable to our outstanding variable rate debt. We capitalized interest of $
during the year ended December 31, 2020.
No interest was capitalized in 2021 based on the balance outstanding
our variable rate debt. Repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Improvements are capitalized if they extend the life of the asset or enhance the quality
or ability of the asset to benefit operations. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives as follo

Estimated Life
   40 years
Office furnishings and equipment
Antennae, towers and transmitting equipment
20 years
Studio, production, and mobile equipment
7 years
Computer software and website development costs
   3 years
Record and tape libraries
   3 years
   5 years
Leasehold improvements
   Lesser of the useful life or
remaining lease term
The carrying value of property and equipment is evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future
flows o
the underlying radio stations and business units for
When indicators of impairment are present, and the cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets is less than the carrying value, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of the assets is recorded. See Note 6, Property and
Internally Developed Software and Website Development Costs
We capitalize costs incurred during the application development stage related to the development of
software as specified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic
.” Capitalized costs are generally depreciated over the estimated useful life of three years. Costs incurred related to the conceptual design, and maintenance of
software are expensed as incurred. Website development activities include planning, design and development of graphics and content for new websites and operation of existing sites. Costs incurred that involve providing additional functions and features to the website are capitalized. Costs associated with website planning, maintenance, content development and training are expensed as incurred. We capitalized $
 million and $
 million during the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020, respectively, related to internally developed software and website development costs. Depreciation expense of the amounts capitalized was $
 million and $
 million for each of the years ending December 31, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
We account for broadcast licenses and goodwill in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350 “
Intangibles—Goodwill and Other
.” We do not amortize broadcast licenses or goodwill, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that the value may be impaired.
Impairment testing requires an estimate of the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets. We believe that these estimates of fair value are critical accounting estimates as the value is significant in relation to our total assets and the estimates incorporate variables and assumptions based on our experiences and judgment about our future operating performance. Fair value measurements use significant unobservable inputs that reflect our own assumptions about the estimates that market participants would use in measuring fair value, including assumptions about risk. If actual future results are less favorable than the assumptions and estimates used in our estimates, we are subject to future Impairment charges, the amount of which may be material. The unobservable inputs are defined in FASB ASC Topic 820 “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” as Level 3 inputs discussed in detail in Note 12, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures.
We perform our annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year as discussed in Note 8, Broadcast Licenses and in Note 9, Goodwill.
Amortizable Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization. Typically, intangible assets are acquired in conjunction with the acquisition of broadcast entities, digital media entities and publishing entities. These intangibles are amortized using the straight-line method over the
estimated useful lives:
Estimated Life
Customer lists and contracts
   Lesser of 5 years or the
life of contract
Domain and brand names
Favorable and assigned leases
   Lease Term
Subscriber base and lists
7 years
Author relationships
7 years
5 years
The carrying value of our amortizable intangible assets are evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and businesses for indicators of impairment. In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360 “
Property, Plant and Equipment
,” when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets are less than the carrying amounts of these assets, an adjustment to
reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of these assets is recorded, if necessary.
adjustments to the carrying amounts of our amortizable intangible assets were necessary during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs incurred in conjunction with debt obligations are amortized to
interest expense over the term of the agreement using the effective interest method. Deferred financing costs related to the Asset Based Loan Facility (“ABL Facility”) and the Delayed Draw 2028 Notes are reflected in long term assets net of accumulated amortization. Deferred financing costs related to the 2024 Notes and the 2028 Notes recorded as a reduction of “Long-term debt – less current portion” in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. See Note 11, Long-Term Debt.
Income Tax Valuation Allowances (Deferred Taxes)
We account for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740 “
Income Taxes
.” In preparing our consolidated financial statements, we estimate our income tax liability in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate by estimating our actual current tax exposure and assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and financial statement purposes. We calculate our current and deferred tax provisions based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed during the subsequent year. Adjustments based on filed returns are generally recorded in the period when the tax returns are filed, and the tax implications are known. Tax law and rate changes are reflected in the income tax provision in the period in which such changes are enacted.
We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. We consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies in assessing the need for a valuation allowance. In the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be charged to earnings in the period in which we make such a determination. Likewise, if we later determine that it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets would be realized, we would reverse the applicable portion of the previously provided valuation allowance.
For financial reporting purposes, we recorded a valuation allowance of $39.1 million as of December 31, 202
 to offset $39.1 million of the deferred tax assets related
to federal and
state net operating loss carryforwards of $20.7 million
and $14.4 million respectively, along with $4 million of
other financial statement
for a total valuation allowance of $39.1 million. This balance represents
a decrease
of $9.0 million during the year, from $48.1 million valuation allowance as of December 31, 20
We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Income Taxes and Uncertain Tax Positions
We are subject to audit and review by various taxing jurisdictions. We may recognize liabilities on our financial statements for positions taken on uncertain tax positions. When tax returns are filed, it is highly certain that some positions taken would be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, while others may be subject to uncertainty about the merits of the position taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. Such positions are deemed to be unrecognized tax benefits and a corresponding liability is established
on the balance sheet. It is inherently difficult and subjective to estimate such amounts, as this requires us to make estimates based on the various possible outcomes. The benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, we believe it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any.
We review and reevaluate uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. Changes in assumptions may result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions around our subsidiary Salem Communications Holding Company’s Pennsylvania tax filing. The position taken on the tax returns follows Pennsylvania Notice
which provides guidance for reversal of intercompany interest income and associated expense yielding a net loss for Pennsylvania. The current liability recognized for the tax position is $0.3 million including interest and penalties. Our evaluation was performed for all tax years that remain subject to examination, which range from 2017 through 2020.
Effective Tax Rate
Our provision for income tax as a percentage of operating income before taxes, or our effective tax rate, may be impacted by:
changes in the level of income in any of our taxing jurisdictions;
changes in statutes and rules applicable to taxable income in the jurisdictions in which we operate;
changes in the expected outcome of income tax audits;
changes in the estimate of expenses that are not deductible for tax purposes;
income taxes in certain states where the states’ current taxable income is dependent on factors other than consolidated net income;
the addition of operations in states that on average have different income tax rates from states in which we currently operate; and
the effect of previously reported temporary differences between the and financial reporting bases of assets and liabilities.
Our annual effective tax rate may also be materially impacted by tax expense associated with
assets such as broadcast licenses and goodwill as well as changes in the deferred tax valuation allowance. An impairment loss for financial statement purposes will result in an income tax benefit during the period incurred as the amortization of broadcasting licenses and goodwill is deductible for income tax purposes.
Business Acquisitions
We account for business acquisitions in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting as specified in FASB ASC Topic 805 “
Business Combinations
.” The total acquisition consideration is allocated to assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values as of the date of the transaction. The total acquisition consideration is equal to the sum of all cash payments, the fair value of any deferred payments and promissory notes, and the present value of any estimated contingent
consideration. Estimates of the fair value include discounted estimated cash flows to be generated by the acquired assets over their expected useful lives based on historical experience, market trends, and any synergies believed to be achieved from the acquisition.
Acquisitions may include contingent consideration, the fair value of which is estimated as of the acquisition date as the present value of the
payments expected to be made using a weighted probability of possible
payments. The unobservable inputs used in the determination of the fair value of the contingent
consideration include our own assumptions about the likelihood of payment based on the established benchmarks and discount rates based on our internal rate of return analysis. The fair value measurement is based on significant inputs that are not observable in the market and thus represent a Level 3 measurement as defined in in Note 12, Fair Value Measurements.
We may retain a third-party appraiser to estimate the fair value of the acquired net assets as of the acquisition date. As part of the valuation and appraisal process, the third-party appraiser prepares a report assigning estimated fair values to the various assets acquired. These fair value estimates are subjective in nature and require careful consideration and judgment. Management reviews the third-party reports for reasonableness of the assigned values. We believe that these valuations and analysis provide appropriate estimates of the fair value for the net assets acquired as of the acquisition date.
The initial valuations for business acquisitions are subject to refinement during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date. During this measurement period, we may retroactively record adjustments to the net assets acquired based on additional information obtained for items that existed as of the acquisition date. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period, any adjustments are reflected in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. To date, we have not recorded adjustments to the estimated fair values used in our business acquisition consideration during or after the measurement period.
Property and equipment are recorded at the estimated fair value and depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Finite-lived intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair value and amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Goodwill, which represents the organizational systems and procedures in place to ensure the effective operation of the entity, may also be recorded and tested for impairment.
Transactions that do not meet the definition of a business in ASU
Business Combinations (Topic 805) Clarifying the Definition of a Business”
are recorded as asset purchases. Asset purchases are recognized based on their cost to acquire, including transaction costs. The cost to acquire an asset group is allocated to the individual assets acquired based on their relative fair value with no goodwill recognized. A majority of our radio station acquisitions have consisted primarily of the FCC licenses to broadcast in a particular market. We often do not acquire the existing format, or we change the format upon acquisition when we find it beneficial. As a result, a substantial portion of the purchase price for the assets of a radio station is allocated to the broadcast license. Under ASU
a fewer number of our radio station acquisitions qualify as business acquisitions and instead are accounted for as asset purchases. Costs associated with business acquisitions, such as consulting and legal fees, are expensed as incurred. We incurred acquisition related costs of $0.1 million in each of the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020.
Partial Self-Insurance on Employee Health Plan
We provide health insurance benefits to eligible employees under a self-insured plan whereby we pay actual medical claims subject to certain stop loss limits. We record self-insurance liabilities based on actual claims filed and an estimate of those claims incurred but not reported. Our estimates are based on historical data and probabilities. Any projection of losses concerning our liability is subject to a high degree of variability. Among the causes of this variability are unpredictable external factors such as future inflation rates, changes in severity, benefit level changes, medical costs, and claim settlement patterns. Should the actual amount of claims increase or decrease beyond what was anticipated, we may adjust our future reserves. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates.
The following table presents the changes in our partial self-insurance reserves:

Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)
Balance, beginning of period
   $ 640     
Self-funded costs
Claims paid
Ending period balance
   $ 543     
Derivative Instruments
We are exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates. We actively monitor these fluctuations and may use derivative instruments primarily for the purpose of reducing the impact of changing interest rates on our variable rate debt and to reduce the impact of changing fair market values on our fixed rate debt. In accordance with our risk management strategy, we may use derivative instruments only for the purpose of managing risk associated with an asset, liability, committed transaction, or probable forecasted transaction that is identified by management. Our use of derivative instruments may result in short-term gains or losses that may increase the volatility of our earnings.

Under FASB ASC Topic 815, “
Derivatives and Hedging,”
the effective portion of the gain or loss on a derivative instrument designated and qualifying as a cash flow hedging instrument shall be reported as a component of other comprehensive income (outside earnings) and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecasted transaction affects earnings. The remaining gain or loss on the derivative instrument, if any, shall be recognized currently in earnings.
As of December 31, 2021, we did not have any outstanding derivative instruments.
Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures 
As of December 31, 2021, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivables, accounts payable, accrued expenses and accrued interest approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of such instruments. The carrying value of the ABL Facility approximates fair value as the related interest rates approximate rates currently available to the company. The carrying amount of our long-term debt at December 31, 2021, was
$174.9 million, compared to the estimated fair value of $176.2 
million based on prevailing interest rates and trading activity for our long-term debt. See Note 12, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures.
Long-term Debt and Debt Covenant Compliance
Our classification of outstanding borrowings on our 2024 Notes and 2028 Notes as long-term debt on our balance sheet is based on our assessment that, under the indentures and after considering our projected operating results and cash flows for the coming year, no principal payments are required to be made within the next twelve months. We may redeem the 2024 Notes and 2028 Notes, in whole or in part, at the redemption prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount to be redeemed) set forth in the Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, up to, but not including, the redemption date. See Note 11, Long-Term Debt.
Reserves for Royalty Advances
Royalties are paid in advance to book authors and capitalized as prepaid assets. Royalties are expensed as the related book revenue is earned or when we determine that future recovery of the royalty is not likely. We review
historical data associated with royalty advances, earnings and recoverability based on actual results of Regnery
Publishing. Historically, the longer the unearned portion of an advance remains outstanding, the less likely it is that we will recover the advance through the sale of the book. We apply our historical experience to outstanding royalty advances to estimate the likelihood of recovery. A provision was established to expense the balance of any unearned advance which we believe is not recoverable. Our analysis also considers other discrete factors, such as death of an author, any decision to not pursue publication of a title, poor market demand, and other relevant factors. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Contingency Reserves
In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in various legal proceedings, lawsuits, arbitrations, and other claims which are complex in nature and have outcomes that are difficult to predict. Consequently, we are unable to ascertain the ultimate aggregate amount of monetary liability or the financial impact with respect to these matters.
We record contingency reserves to the extent we conclude that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the related loss can be reasonably estimated. The establishment of the reserve is based on a review of all relevant factors, the advice of legal counsel, and the subjective judgment of management. The reserves we have recorded to date have not been material to our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.

While we believe that the final resolution of any known matters, individually and in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect upon our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows, it is possible that we could incur additional losses. We maintain insurance that may provide coverage for such matters. Future claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could have a material adverse effect upon our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows, including losses due to costly litigation and losses due to matters that require significant amounts of management time that can result in the diversion of significant operational resources. See Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies.
Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, “
Revenue from Contracts with Customers”
(“ASC 606”). ASC 606 is a comprehensive revenue recognition model that requires revenue to be recognized when control of the promised goods or services are transferred to our customers at an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive.
Significant management judgments and estimates must be made in connection with determining the amount of revenue to be recognized in any accounting period. We must assess the promises within each sales contract to determine if they are distinct performance obligations. Once the performance obligation(s) are determined, the transaction price is allocated to the performance obligation(s) based on a relative standalone selling price basis. If a sales contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative standalone selling price. If the stand-alone selling price is not determinable, an estimate is used. We make significant estimates related to variable consideration at the point of sale, including estimates for refunds and product
Stock-Based Compensation
We account for stock-based compensation under the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 718, “
Compensation—Stock Compensation
.” We record equity awards with stock-based compensation measured at the fair value of the award as of the grant date. We determine the fair value of our options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model that requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price volatility and expected term of the options granted. The exercise price for options is equal to the closing market price of Salem Media Group common stock as of the date of grant. We use the straight-line attribution method to recognize share-based compensation costs over the expected service period of the award. Upon exercise, cancellation, forfeiture, or expiration of stock options, or upon vesting or forfeiture of restricted stock awards, deferred tax assets for options and restricted stock awards with multiple vesting dates are eliminated for each vesting period on a
basis as if each vesting period was a separate award. See Note 15, Stock Incentive Plan.
Advertising and Promotional Cost
Costs of media advertising and associated production costs are expensed as incurred and amounted to approximately $10.6 million and $7.9 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2021
and 2020, respectively.
We account for leases under the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 842, “
.” ASC 842 requires that lessees recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities calculated based on the present value of lease payments for all lease agreements with terms that are greater than twelve months. ASC 842 distinguishes leases as either a finance lease or an operating lease that affects how the leases are measured and presented in the statement of operations and statement of cash flows.
Accounting Policy Elections under ASC 842
Lease Term
The lease term can materially impact the value of the
(“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities recorded on our balance sheet as required under ASC 842. We calculate the term for each lease agreement to include the noncancellable period specified in the agreement together with (1) the periods covered by options to extend the lease if we are reasonably certain to exercise that option, (2) periods covered by an option to terminate if we are reasonably certain not to exercise that option and (3) period covered by an option to extend (or not terminate) if controlled by the lessor. The assessment of whether we are reasonably certain to exercise an option to extend a lease requires significant judgement surrounding contract-based factors, asset-based factors, entity-based factors, and market-based factors. We have not modified our estimate methodology since adopting ASC 842 on January 1, 2019.
Lease Payments
Lease payments consist of the following payments (as applicable) related to the use of the underlying asset during the lease term:
Fixed payments, including in substance fixed payments, less any lease incentives paid or payable to the lessee
Variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate, such as the Consumer Price Index or a market interest rate,
The exercise price of an option to purchase the underlying asset if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option.
Payments for penalties for terminating the lease if the lease term reflects the lessee exercising an option to terminate the lease.
Fees paid by the lessee to the owners of a special-purpose entity for structuring the transaction
For a lessee only, amounts probable of being owed by the lessee under residual value guarantees
Short-Term Lease Exemption
We exclude short-term leases, or leases with a term of twelve months or less that do not contain a purchase option that we are reasonably certain to exercise, from our ROU asset and lease liability calculations.
We consider the applicability of the short-term exception on
leases with perpetual or rolling renewals as we are “reasonably certain” to continue the lease. For example, we lease various storage facilities under agreements with
terms that have continued over several years. The standard terms and conditions for a majority of these agreements allow either party to terminate within a notice period ranging from 10 to 30 days. There are no cancellation penalties other than the potential loss of a
rent or a security deposit if the termination terms are not adhered to.
We believe that these
leases qualify for the short-term exception to ASC 842 because either party can terminate the agreement without permission from the other party with no more than an insignificant penalty, therefore, the arrangements do not create enforceable rights and obligations. Additionally, the cost to move to a new location or find comparable facilities is low as there are no unique features of the storage facilities that impact our business or operations. We consider termination clauses, costs associated with moving, and costs associated with finding alternative facilities to exclude
leases that have perpetually renewed.
Service Agreements with an Embedded Lease Component
We exclude certain service agreements that contain embedded leases for equipment based on the immaterial impact of these agreements. Our analysis includes cable and satellite television service agreements for which our monthly payment may include equipment rentals, coffee and water service at certain facilities that may include equipment rentals (we often meet minimum requirements and just pay for product used), security services that include a monthly fee for cameras or equipment, and other similar arrangements. Based on the insignificant amount of the monthly lease costs, we exclude these agreements from our ROU asset and liability calculations due to the immaterial impact to our financial statements.
Incremental Borrowing Rate
The ROU asset and related lease liabilities recorded under ASC 842 are calculated based on the present value of the lease payments using (1) the rate implicit in the lease or (2) the lessee’s IBR, defined as the rate of interest that a lessee would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. As most leases do not provide an implicit rate, we estimate the IBR applicable to Salem using significant judgement and estimates, including the estimated value of the underlying leased asset, and the (a) credit history of Salem Media Group, (b) the credit worthiness of Salem Media Group, (c) the class of the underlying asset and the remaining term of the arrangement, and (d) the debt incurred under the lease liability as compared to amounts that would be borrowed.
We developed a matrix to estimate the IBR for each lease class. We review the IBR estimates on a quarterly basis and update as necessary. Our analysis requires the use of significant judgement and estimates, including the estimated value of the underlying leased asset. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not recognized significant changes in our estimates.
Portfolio Approach
We apply a portfolio approach by applying a single IBR to leases with reasonably similar characteristics, including the remaining lease term, the underlying assets, and the economic environment. We believe that applying the portfolio approach is acceptable because the results do not materially differ from the application of the leases model to the individual leases in that portfolio.
Sales Taxes and Other Similar Taxes
We do not evaluate whether sales taxes or other similar taxes imposed by a governmental authority on a specific lease revenue-producing transaction that are collected by the lessor from the lessee are the primary obligation of the lessor as owner of the underlying leased asset. A lessor that makes this election will exclude these taxes from the measurement of lease revenue and the associated expense. Taxes assessed on a lessor’s total gross receipts or on the lessor as owner of the underlying asset (e.g., property taxes) are excluded from the scope of the policy election. A lessor must apply the election to all taxes in the scope of the policy election and would provide certain disclosures.
Separating Consideration between Lease and
We include the lease and
components (or the fixed and variable consideration) as a single component accounted for as a lease. This practical expedient is elected by class of underlying assets as an accounting policy election and applies to all arrangements in that class of underlying assets that qualify for the expedient. ASC 842 provides this expedient to alleviate concerns that the costs and administrative burden of allocating consideration to the separate lease and
components may not justify the benefit of more precisely reflecting the ROU asset and the lease liability.
Contracts that include lease and
components that are accounted for under the election not to separate require that all components that qualify for the practical expedient be combined. The components that do not qualify, such as those for which the timing and pattern of transfer of the lease and associated
components are not the same, are accounted for separately.
Accounting for a lease component of a contract and its associated
components as a single lease component results in an allocation of the total contract consideration to the lease component. Therefore, the initial and subsequent measurement of the lease liability and ROU asset is greater than if the policy election was not applied. The greater ROU asset value is considered in our impairment analysis.
Leasehold Improvements
We may construct or otherwise invest in leasehold improvements to properties. The costs of these leasehold improvements are capitalized and depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the improvement or the lease term including anticipated renewal periods.
(Gain) Loss on the Disposition of Assets
We record gains or losses on the disposition of assets equal to the proceeds, if any, as compared to the net book value. Exchange transactions are accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 845 “
Discontinued Operations
We regularly review underperforming assets to determine if a sale or disposal might be a better way to monetize the assets. When a station, group of stations, or other asset group is considered for sale or disposal, we review the transaction to determine if or when the entity qualifies as a discontinued operation in accordance with the criteria of FASB ASC Topic
Discontinued Operations
Basic and Diluted Net Earnings Per Share
Basic net earnings per share have been computed using the weighted average number of Class A and Class B shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period plus the dilutive effects of stock options.
Options to purchase 1,925,417 and 2,291,020 shares of Class 
A common stock were outstanding at December 31, 2021, and 2020. Diluted weighted average shares outstanding exclude outstanding stock options whose exercise price is in excess of the average price of the company’s stock price. These options are excluded from the respective computations of diluted net income or loss per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive.
The following table sets forth the shares used to compute basic and diluted net earnings per share for the periods indicated:

Year Ended December 31,
Weighted average shares
Effect of dilutive securities
stock options
Weighted average shares adjusted for dilutive securities
We have three operating segments: (1) Broadcast, (2) Digital Media, and (3) Publishing, which also qualify as reportable segments. Our operating segments reflect how our chief operating decision makers, which we define as a collective group of senior executives, assesses the performance of each operating segment, and determines the appropriate allocations of resources to each segment. We continually review our operating segment classifications to align with operational changes in our business and may make changes as necessary.
We measure and evaluate our operating segments based on operating income and operating expenses that do not include allocations of costs related to corporate functions, such as accounting and finance, human resources, legal, tax and treasury, which are reported as unallocated corporate expenses in our consolidated statements of operations included in this annual report. We also exclude costs such as amortization, depreciation, taxes, and interest expense.
Variable Interest Entities
We may enter into agreements or investments with other entities that could qualify as variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 810 “
(“ASC 810.”) A VIE is consolidated in the financial statements if we are deemed to be the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary is the entity that holds the majority of the beneficial interests in the VIE, either explicitly or implicitly. A VIE is an entity for which the primary beneficiary’s interest in the entity can change with variations in factors other than the amount of investment in the entity. We perform our evaluation for VIE’s upon entry into the agreement or investment. We
the VIE when or if events occur that could change the status of the VIE.
We may enter into lease arrangements with entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties. We believe that the requirements of FASB ASC 810 do not apply to these entities because the lease arrangements do not contain explicit guarantees of the residual value of the real estate, do not contain purchase options or similar provisions and the leases are at terms that do not vary materially from leases that would have been available with unaffiliated parties. Additionally, we do not have an equity interest in the entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties, and we do not guarantee debt of the entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties.

We also enter into Local Marketing Agreements (“LMAs”) or Time Brokerage Agreements (“TBAs”) contemporaneously with entering into an Asset Purchase Agreement (“APA”) to acquire or sell a radio station. Typically, both LMAs and TBAs are contractual agreements under which the station owner/licensee makes airtime available to a programmer/licensee in exchange for a fee and reimbursement of certain expenses. LMAs and TBAs are subject to compliance with the antitrust laws and the communications laws, including the requirement that the licensee must maintain independent control over the station and, in particular, its personnel, programming, and finances. The FCC has held that such agreements do not violate the communications laws as long as the licensee of the station receiving programming from another station maintains ultimate responsibility for, and control over, station operations and otherwise ensures compliance with the communications laws.
The requirements of FASB ASC 810 may apply to entities under LMAs or TBAs, depending on the facts and circumstances related to each transaction. As of December 31, 2021, we did not have implicit or explicit arrangements that required consolidation under the guidance in FASB ASC 810.
Concentrations of Business Risks
We derive a substantial part of our total revenue from the sale of advertising. For the years ended December 31, 2021
and 2020, 29.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of our total broadcast revenue was generated from the sale of broadcast advertising. We are particularly dependent on revenue from stations in the Los Angeles and Dallas markets, which generated 13.6% and 21.1% of the total broadcast advertising revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021, and 14.1% and 22.1% of the total broadcast advertising revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020. Because substantial portions of our revenue is derived from local advertisers in these key markets, our ability to generate revenue in those markets could be adversely affected by local or regional economic downturns.
Concentrations of Credit Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents; accounts receivable and derivative instruments. We place our cash and cash equivalents with high quality financial institutions. Such balances may be in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits. To manage the related credit exposure, we continually monitor the credit worthiness of the financial institutions where we have deposits. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable are limited due to the wide variety of customers and markets in which we provide services, as well as the dispersion of our operations across many geographic areas. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers, but generally do not require collateral to support customer receivables. We establish an allowance for doubtful accounts based on various factors including the credit risk of specific customers, age of receivables outstanding, historical trends, economic conditions, and other information. Historically, our bad debt expense has been within management’s expectations.
These estimates require the use of judgment as future events and the effect of these events cannot be predicted with certainty. The estimates will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired and as more information is obtained. We evaluate and update our assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and we may consult outside experts to assist as considered necessary.
Certain reclassifications of amounts previously reported were made within footnote details to conform to the current period presentation.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
All new accounting pronouncements that are in effect that may impact our financial statements have been implemented. We do not believe that there are any other new accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.