|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Text Block [Abstract]|
NOTE 9. BROADCAST LICENSES
We account for broadcast licenses in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350 Intangibles—Goodwill and Other. We do not amortize broadcast licenses, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that the value may be impaired. In the case of our broadcast radio stations, we would not be able to operate the properties without the related broadcast license for each property. Broadcast licenses are renewed with the FCC every eight years for a nominal fee that is expensed as incurred. We continually monitor our stations’ compliance with the various regulatory requirements that are necessary for the FCC renewal and all of our broadcast licenses have been renewed at the end of their respective periods. We expect all of our broadcast licenses to be renewed in the future and therefore, we consider our broadcast licenses to be indefinite-lived intangible assets. We are not aware of any legal, competitive, economic or other factors that materially limit the useful life of our broadcast licenses.
At September 30, 2019, we performed an interim review of broadcast licenses for certain markets with revenues that were trending below the forecasted amounts used in the 2018 year-end valuations. We also noted station sales that indicate potential declines in market-dependent multiples. We believe that the downward trend noted during the third quarter of 2019 was more likely to prevail throughout the remainder of 2019 as compared to prior periods when the trend was not as prevalent. We performed an assessment of the amount by which the prior year estimated fair value exceeded the carrying value of the broadcast license and the year-to-date market revenues as compared to the forecasted market revenue used in the prior year valuation under the start-up income approach.
Impairment testing requires an estimate of the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets. We believe that these estimates of fair value are critical accounting estimates as the value is significant in relation to our total assets and the estimates incorporate variables and assumptions based on our experiences and judgment about our future operating performance. Fair value measurements use significant unobservable inputs that reflect our own assumptions about the estimates that market participants would use in measuring fair value, including assumptions about risk. If actual future results are less favorable than the assumptions and estimates used in our estimates, we are subject to future impairment charges, the amount of which may be material. The unobservable inputs are defined in FASB ASC Topic 820 “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” as Level 3 inputs discussed in detail in Note 15 – Fair Value Measurements.
Based on our assessment, we engaged Bond & Pecaro, an independent third-party appraisal and valuation firm, to assist us with determining the enterprise value of 7 of our market clusters. The estimated fair value of each market cluster was determined using the Greenfield Method, a form of the income approach. The premise of the Greenfield Method is that the value of a broadcast license is equivalent to a hypothetical start-up in which the only asset owned by the station as of the valuation date is the broadcast license. This approach eliminates factors that are unique to our operation of the station, including its format and historical financial performance. The method then assumes the entity has to purchase, build, or rent all of the other assets needed to operate a comparable station to the one in which the broadcast license is being utilized as of the valuation date. Cash flows are estimated and netted against all start-up costs, expenses and investments necessary to achieve a normalized and mature state of operations, thus reflecting only the cash flows directly attributable to the broadcast license. A multi-year discounted cash flow approach is then used to determine the net present value of these cash flows to derive an indication of fair value. For cash flows beyond the projection period, a terminal value is calculated using the Gordon constant growth model and long-term industry growth rate assumptions based on long-term industry growth and Gross Domestic Product (“GDP”) inflation rates.
The primary assumptions used in the Greenfield Method are:
The assumptions used reflect those of a hypothetical market participant and not necessarily the actual or projected results of Salem. The key estimates and assumptions used in the start-up income valuation for our broadcast licenses were as follows:
The risk-adjusted discount rate reflects the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (“WACC”) developed based on data from same or similar industry participants and publicly available market data as of the measurement date.
Based on our review and analysis, we determined that the carrying value of broadcast licenses in four of our market clusters were impaired as of the interim testing period ending September 30, 2019. We recorded an impairment charge of $1.9 million to the value of broadcast licenses in Louisville, Philadelphia, Portland and San Francisco. The impairment charges were driven in part by decreases in the projected long-term revenue growth rates in certain markets or by overall market performance during the first nine months of 2019 that was below the market participant estimates used in the year-end valuations in certain markets. We believe that these decreases are indicative of trends in the industry as a whole and not unique to our company or operations.
The table below presents the results of our interim impairment testing under the start-up income approach at September 30, 2019:
The following table presents the changes in broadcasting licenses that include acquisitions and divestitures of radio stations and FM translators.