SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements of Salem Media Group, Inc. (“Salem” “we,” “us,” “our” or the “company”) include the company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Description of Business
Salem is a domestic multimedia company specializing in Christian and conservative content. Our media properties include radio broadcasting, digital media, and publishing entities. We have three operating segments: (1) Broadcast, (2) Digital Media, and (3) Publishing, which are discussed in Note 20 Segment Data. Our foundational business is radio broadcasting, which includes the ownership and operation of radio stations in large metropolitan markets. We also own and operate Salem Radio Network® (“SRN”), SRN News Network (“SNN”), Today’s Christian Music (“TCM”), Singing News Network and Salem Media RepresentativesTM (“SMR”). SRN, SNN, TCM and Singing News Network are networks that develop, produce and syndicate a broad range of programming specifically targeted to Christian and family-themed talk stations, music stations and general News Talk stations throughout the United States, including Salem-owned and operated stations. SMR, a national advertising sales firm with offices in ten U.S. cities, specializes in placing national advertising on religious and other format commercial radio stations. Each of our radio stations has a website specifically designed for that station from which our audience can access our entire library of digital content and online publications.
Our digital media based businesses provide Christian, conservative, investing and health-themed content, e-commerce, audio and video streaming, and other resources digitally through the web. Salem Web Network (“SWN”) websites include Christian content websites; BibleStudyTools.com, Crosswalk.com®, GodVine.com, iBelieve.com, GodTube.com, OnePlace.com, Christianity.com, GodUpdates.com, CrossCards.com, ChristianHeadlines.com, LightSource.com, AllCreated.com, ChristianRadio.com, CCMmagazine.com, SingingNews.com and SouthernGospel.com and our conservative opinion websites; collectively known as Townhall Media, include Townhall.com, HotAir.com, Twitchy.com, RedState.com, BearingArms.com, HumanEvents.com, and ConservativeRadio.com. We also publish digital newsletters through Eagle Financial Publications, which provide market analysis and non-individualized investment strategies from financial commentators on a subscription basis.
Our church e-commerce websites, including SermonSearch.com, ChurchStaffing.com, WorshipHouseMedia.com, SermonSpice.com, WorshipHouseKids.com, Preaching.com, ChristianJobs.com and Youthworker.com, offer a variety of digital resources including videos, song tracks, sermon archives and job listings to pastors and Church leaders. E-commerce also includes Eagle Wellness, which sells nutritional supplements.
Our web content is accessible through all of our radio station websites that feature content of interest to local audiences throughout the United States.
Our publishing operating segment includes three businesses: (1) Regnery Publishing, a traditional book publisher that has published dozens of bestselling books by leading conservative authors and personalities, including Ann Coulter, Newt Gingrich, David Limbaugh, Ed Klein, Mark Steyn and Dinesh D’Souza; (2) Salem Author Services, a self-publishing service for authors through Xulon Press, Mill City Press and Bookprinting.com; and (3) Singing News® magazine, previously Salem Publishing which produces and distributes a print magazine.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid debt instruments, purchased with an initial maturity of three-months or less, to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of our cash and cash equivalents approximated fair value at each balance sheet date.
Trade Accounts Receivable
Trade accounts receivable represent amounts due to us from our customers from revenue generating activities. Our receivables are recorded at the invoiced amount and represent claims that will be settled in cash. The carrying value of our receivables, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts and estimated sales returns, represents their estimated net realizable value. Trade accounts receivable for our self-publishing services represent contractual amounts due under individual payment plans that are adjusted quarterly to exclude unearned or cancellable contracts.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We evaluate the balance reserved in our allowance for doubtful accounts on a quarterly basis based on our historical collection experience, the age of the receivables, specific customer information and current economic conditions. Past due balances are generally not written-off until all collection efforts have been exhausted, including use of a collections agency. A considerable amount of judgment is required in assessing the likelihood of ultimate realization of these receivables, including the current creditworthiness of each customer. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Inventories consist of finished goods including published books and wellness products. Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or market as determined on a First-In First-Out (“FIFO”) cost method.
We record a provision to expense the balance of unsold inventory that we believe to be unrecoverable. We review historical data associated with book and wellness product inventories held by Regnery Publishing and our e-commerce wellness entities, as well as our own experiences to estimate the fair value of inventory on hand. Our analysis includes a review of actual sales returns, our allowances, royalty reserves, overall economic conditions and product demand. We regularly monitor actual performance to our estimates and make adjustments as necessary. Estimated inventory reserves may be adjusted, either favorably or unfavorably, if factors such as the historical data we used to calculate these estimates do not properly reflect future returns or as a result of changes in economic conditions of the customer and/or the market. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation. Cost represents the historical cost of acquiring the asset, including the costs necessarily incurred to bring it to the condition and location necessary for its intended use. For assets constructed for our own use, such as towers and buildings that are discrete projects for which costs are separately accumulated and for which construction takes considerable time, we record capitalized interest. The amount capitalized is the cost that could have been avoided had the asset not been constructed and is based on the average accumulated expenditures incurred over the capitalization period at the weighted average rate applicable to our outstanding variable rate debt. We capitalized interest of $0.2 million during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. Repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Improvements are capitalized if they extend the life of the asset or enhance the quality or ability of the asset to benefit operations. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives as follows:
The carrying value of property and equipment is evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and business units for indicators of impairment. When indicators of impairment are present, and the cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets is less than the carrying value, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of the assets is recorded. See Note 9 Property and Equipment.
Internally Developed Software and Website Development Costs
We capitalize costs incurred during the application development stage related to the development of internal-use software as specified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 350-40 Internal-Use Software. Capitalized costs are generally amortized over the estimated useful life of three years. Costs incurred related to the conceptual design and maintenance of internal-use software are expensed as incurred. Website development activities include planning, design and development of graphics and content for new websites and operation of existing sites. Costs incurred that involve providing additional functions and features to the website are capitalized. Costs associated with website planning, maintenance, content development and training are expensed as incurred. We capitalized $3.7 million, $2.3 million and $2.2 million during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively, related to internally developed software and website development costs. Amortization expense of amounts capitalized was $2.8 million, $2.5 million and $2.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Amortizable Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are recorded at cost less accumulated amortization. Typically, intangible assets are acquired in conjunction with the acquisition of broadcast entities, digital media entities and publishing entities. These intangibles are amortized using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
The carrying value of our amortizable intangible assets are evaluated periodically in relation to the operating performance and anticipated future cash flows of the underlying radio stations and businesses for indicators of impairment. In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 360 Property, Plant and Equipment, when indicators of impairment are present and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated from these assets are less than the carrying amounts of these assets, an adjustment to reduce the carrying value to the fair market value of these assets is recorded, if necessary. During 2016, we recorded an impairment of approximately $8,000 associated with amortizable assets within our wellness products business. No adjustments to the carrying amounts of our amortizable intangible assets were necessary during the year ended December 31, 2017.
In the case of our broadcast radio stations, we would not be able to operate the properties without the related FCC broadcast license for each property. Broadcast licenses are renewed with the FCC every eight years for a nominal fee that is expensed as incurred. We continually monitor our stations’ compliance with the various regulatory requirements that are necessary for FCC renewal and all of our broadcast licenses have been renewed at the end of their respective periods. We expect all of our broadcast licenses to be renewed in the future and therefore, we consider our broadcast licenses to be indefinite-lived intangible assets. The weighted-average period before the next renewal of our broadcasting licenses is 3.5 years.
We account for broadcast licenses in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350 IntangiblesGoodwill and Other. We do not amortize broadcast licenses, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that the value may be impaired. We perform our annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year, which coincides with our budget and planning process for the upcoming year.
The unit of accounting we use to test broadcast licenses is the cluster level, which we define as a group of radio stations operating in the same geographic market, sharing the same building and equipment and managed by a single general manager. The cluster level is the lowest level for which discrete financial information and cash flows are available and the level reviewed by management to analyze operating results.
We perform a qualitative assessment for each of our broadcast market clusters. We review the significant assumptions and key estimates applicable to our prior year estimated fair value calculations to assess if events and circumstances have occurred that could affect these assumptions and key estimates. We also review internal benchmarks and the economic performance for each market cluster to assess if it is more likely than not that impairment exists.
The first step of our qualitative assessment is to calculate excess fair value, defined as the amount by which our prior year estimated fair value exceeds the current year carrying value. We believe based on our analysis and review, including the financial performance of each market, that a 25% excess fair value margin is a conservative and reasonable benchmark for our qualitative analysis. Markets with an excess fair value of 25% or more, which have had no significant changes in the prior year assumptions and key estimates, are not likely to be impaired.
The second step of our qualitative assessment consists of a review of the financial operating results for each market cluster. Radio stations are often sold on the basis of a multiple of projected cash flow, or Station Operating Income (“SOI”) defined as net broadcast revenue less broadcast operating expenses. See Item 6 Selected Financial Data within this annual report for information on SOI, a non-GAAP measure. Numerous trade organizations and analysts review these radio station sales to track SOI multiples applicable to each transaction. Based on published reports and analysis of market transactions, we believe industry benchmarks to be in the six to seven times cash flow range. We elected an SOI benchmark of four as a conservative indicator of fair value.
If the results of our qualitative assessment indicate that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we perform a quantitative review of the reporting unit. We engage an independent third-party appraisal and valuation firm to assist us with determining the enterprise value as part of this quantitative review.
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
We account for goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 350 IntangiblesGoodwill and Other. We do not amortize goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets, but rather test for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired. We perform our annual impairment testing during the fourth quarter of each year, which coincides with our budget and planning process for the upcoming year.
The unit of accounting we use to test goodwill associated with our radio stations is the cluster level, which we define as a group of radio stations operating in the same geographic market, sharing the same building and equipment and managed by a single general manager. Nineteen of our 34 market clusters have goodwill associated with them as of our annual testing period ended December 31, 2017.
The unit of accounting we use to test goodwill in our radio networks is the entity level, which includes Salem Radio Network® (“SRN”), SRN News Network (“SNN”), Todays Christian Music (“TCM”) and Singing News Network. The entity level is the level reviewed by management for which discrete financial information is available. One of our five networks has goodwill associated with it as of our annual testing period ended December 31, 2017.
The unit of accounting we use to test goodwill in our digital media segment is the entity level, which includes Salem Web Network, Townhall.com, and Eagle Financial Publications. The financial statements for Salem Web Network reflect the operating results and cash flows for our Christian content websites and our church product websites. The financial statements for Townhall.com reflect the operating results for each of our conservative opinion websites. Eagle Financial Publications include our investing websites and related digital publications.
The unit of accounting we use to test goodwill in our publishing segment is the entity level, which includes Regnery Publishing and Salem Author Services. Regnery Publishing is a book publisher based in Washington DC, that operates from a stand-alone facility under one general manager, with operating results and cash flows of reported at the entity level. Salem Author Services operates from a stand-alone facility in Orlando, Florida under one general manager who is responsible for the operating results and cash flows.
We perform a qualitative assessment to determine if events and circumstances have occurred that indicate it is more likely than not that the fair value of the assets, including goodwill, are less than their carrying values. We review the significant inputs used in our prior year fair value estimates to determine if any changes to those inputs should be made. We estimate the fair value using a market approach and compare the estimated fair value of each entity to its carrying value, including goodwill. Under the market approach, we apply a multiple of four to each entities operating income to estimate the fair value. We believe that a multiple of four is a conservative indicator of fair value as described above.
If the results of our qualitative assessment indicate that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we perform a quantitative review of the reporting unit. We engage an independent third-party appraisal and valuation firm to assist us with determining the enterprise value as part of this quantitative review.
Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
Mastheads consist of the graphic elements that identify our publications to readers and advertisers. These include customized typeset page headers, section headers, and column graphics as well as other name and identity stylized elements within the body of each publication. We test the value of mastheads as a single combined publishing entity as our print magazines operate from one shared facility under one general manager with operating results and cash flows reported on a combined basis for all publications. This is the lowest level for which discrete financial information and cash flows are available and the level reviewed by management to analyze operating results.
We account for business acquisitions in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting as specified in FASB ASC Topic 805 Business Combinations. The total acquisition consideration is allocated to assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values as of the date of the transaction. Estimates of the fair value include discounted estimated cash flows to be generated by the assets and their expected useful lives based on historical experience, market trends and any synergies believed to be achieved from the acquisition. The excess of consideration paid over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill and any excess of fair value of the net assets acquired over the consideration paid is recorded as a gain on bargain purchase. Prior to recording a gain, the acquiring entity must reassess whether all acquired assets and assumed liabilities have been identified and recognized and perform re-measurements to verify that the consideration paid, assets acquired, and liabilities assumed have been properly valued. We underwent such a reassessment, and as a result, recorded a pre-tax gain on bargain purchase of $0.1 million for KXFN-AM in St. Louis, Missouri during the year ended December 31, 2016. During the year ended December 31, 2015 recorded a pre-tax gain on bargain purchase of $1.4 million, including $0.8 million for WSDZ-AM in St. Louis, Missouri, $0.3 million for KDIZ-AM in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and $0.3 million for WWMI-AM in Tampa, Florida. We believe that these gains on bargain purchase resulted from various factors that may have impacted the acquisition price, including, without limitation, that Disney was eager to divest of their Radio Disney properties in 2015 and the seller of WSDZ-AM was under a receivership.
Acquisitions may include contingent earn-out consideration, the fair value of which is estimated as of the acquisition date as the present value of the expected contingent payments as determined using weighted probabilities of the payment amounts. See Note 4 Acquisitions and Recent Transactions and Note 5 Contingent Earn-Out Consideration.
A majority of our radio station acquisitions have consisted primarily of the FCC licenses to broadcast in a particular market. We often do not acquire the existing format, or we change the format upon acquisition when we find it beneficial. As a result, a substantial portion of the purchase price for the assets of a radio station is allocated to the broadcast license.
We may retain a third-party appraiser to estimate the fair value of the acquired net assets as of the acquisition date. As part of the valuation and appraisal process, the third-party appraiser prepares a report assigning estimated fair values to the various asset categories in our financial statements. These fair value estimates are subjective in nature and require careful consideration and judgment. Management reviews the third party reports for reasonableness of the assigned values. We believe that the purchase price allocations represent the appropriate estimated fair value of the assets acquired and we have not had to modify our purchase price allocations.
We estimate the economic life of each tangible and intangible asset acquired to determine the period of time in which the asset should be depreciated or amortized. A considerable amount of judgment is required in assessing the economic life of each asset. We consider our own experience with similar assets, industry trends, market conditions and the age of the property at the time of our acquisition to estimate the economic life of each asset. If the financial condition of the assets were to deteriorate, the resulting change in life or impairment of the asset could cause a material impact and volatility in our operating results. To date, we have not experienced changes in the economic life established for each major category of our assets.
Property and equipment are recorded at their estimated fair value and depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Finite-lived intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair value and amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Costs associated with acquisitions, such as consulting and legal fees, are expensed as incurred in unallocated corporate operating expenses.
Contingent Earn-Out Consideration
Our acquisitions may include contingent earn-out consideration as part of the purchase price under which we will make future payments to the seller upon the achievement of certain benchmarks. The fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration is estimated as of the acquisition date at the present value of the expected contingent payments to be made using a probability-weighted discounted cash flow model for probabilities of possible future payments. The present value of the expected future payouts is accreted to interest expense over the earn-out period. The fair value estimates use unobservable inputs that reflect our own assumptions as to the ability of the acquired business to meet the targeted benchmarks and discount rates used in the calculations. The unobservable inputs are defined in FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, as Level 3 inputs discussed in detail in Note 12.
We review the probabilities of possible future payments to the estimated fair value of any contingent earn-out consideration on a quarterly basis over the earn-out period. Actual results are compared to the estimates and probabilities of achievement used in our forecasts. Should actual results of the acquired business increase or decrease as compared to our estimates and assumptions, the estimated fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration liability will increase or decrease, up to the contracted limit, as applicable. Changes in the estimated fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration are reflected in our results of operations in the period in which they are identified. Changes in the estimated fair value of the contingent earn-out consideration may materially impact and cause volatility in our operating results.
We recorded a net decrease to our estimated contingent earn-out liabilities of $23,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017 and net decrease of $689,000 during the prior year. The changes in our estimates reflect volatility from variables, such as revenue growth, page views and session time as discussed in Note 5 Contingent Earn-Out Consideration.
We regularly review underperforming assets to determine if a sale or disposal might be a better way to monetize the assets. When a station, group of stations, or other asset group is considered for sale or disposal, we review the transaction to determine if or when the entity qualifies as a discontinued operation in accordance with the criteria of FASB ASC Topic 205-20 Discontinued Operations.
Revenue is recognized as it is earned in accordance with applicable guidelines. We consider amounts to be earned once evidence of an arrangement has been obtained, services are performed, fees are fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured.
We account for broadcast revenue from the sale of airtime for programs or spots as the program or advertisement is broadcast. Revenues are reported net of agency commissions, which are calculated as a stated percentage applied to gross billings. Digital revenue is recognized upon delivery of page-views, delivery of impressions as specified in the contract, delivery of the digital newsletter or email, or upon delivery of the advertisement or programming content via streaming. Revenues are reported net of agency commissions, which are calculated as a stated percentage applied to gross billings. Revenue from product sales and book sales are recognized upon shipment net of distribution fees and an allowance for sales returns. Revenues from advertisements in our print magazines are recognized upon delivery of the publication net of agency commissions, which are calculated as a stated percentage applied to gross billings. Subscription revenue from our print magazines and digital newsletters is recognized over the life of the related subscription.
Revenue Recognition for Multiple-Deliverables
We enter bundled advertising agreements that may include cross-promotions such as advertisements on our radio stations, digital banners, print magazine placements, booth space at local events, or some combination thereof. The multiple deliverables contained in each agreement are accounted for separately over their respective delivery period provided that they are separate units of accounting. The selling price for each deliverable is based on vendor specific objective evidence, if available, or the estimated fair value of each deliverable. Objective evidence of the fair value includes the price charged for each element when sold separately or the price that we would transact if the deliverable is sold regularly on a standalone basis. Arrangement consideration is allocated at the inception of each agreement to all deliverables using the relative selling price method. The relative selling price method allocates any discount in the arrangement proportionally to each deliverable on the basis of each deliverable’s selling price.
We provide for estimated returns for products sold with the right of return, primarily book sales associated with Regnery Publishing and nutritional products sold through Eagle Wellness and Gene Smart. We record an estimate of these product returns as a reduction of revenue in the period of the sale. Our estimates are based upon historical sales returns, the amount of current period sales, economic trends and any changes in customer demand and acceptance of our products. We regularly monitor actual performance to estimated return rates and make adjustments as necessary. Estimated return rates utilized for establishing estimated returns reserves have approximated actual returns experience. However, actual returns may differ significantly, either favorably or unfavorably, from these estimates if factors such as the historical data we used to calculate these estimates do not properly reflect future returns or as a result of changes in economic conditions of the customer and/or the market. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates
We may provide broadcast time or digital advertising placement to customers in exchange for certain products, supplies or services. The terms of these exchanges generally permit for the preemption of such broadcast time or digital placements in favor of customers who purchase these items for cash. We include the value of such exchanges in net revenues and operating expenses. The value recorded for barter revenue and barter expense is based upon management’s estimate of the fair value of the products, supplies or services received. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our barter revenue and barter expense are accurately reflected.
We record barter revenue as it is earned, typically when the broadcast time is used or the digital advertisement is delivered. We record barter expense equal to the estimated fair value of the goods or services received upon receipt or usage of the items as applicable. Barter revenue included in broadcast revenue for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 was approximately $5.8 million, $5.4 million and $6.1 million, respectively. Barter expenses included in broadcast operating expense for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 were approximately $5.6 million, $5.3 million and $5.9 million, respectively. Barter revenue included in digital media revenue for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 was approximately $0.1 million, $42,000 and $0.1 million, respectively. Barter expenses included in digital media operating expense for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 were approximately $0.1 million, $34,000 and $0.1 million, respectively.
We account for stock-based compensation under the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 718, CompensationStock Compensation. We record equity awards with stock-based compensation measured at the fair value of the award as of the grant date. We determine the fair value of our options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model that requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected stock price volatility and expected term of the options granted. The exercise price for options is equal to the closing market price of Salem Media Group common stock as of the date of grant. We use the straight-line attribution method to recognize share-based compensation costs over the expected service period of the award. Upon exercise, cancellation, forfeiture, or expiration of stock options, or upon vesting or forfeiture of restricted stock awards, deferred tax assets for options and restricted stock awards with multiple vesting dates are eliminated for each vesting period on a first-in, first-out basis as if each vesting period was a separate award. See Note 15 Stock Incentive Plan.
Advertising and Promotional Cost
Costs of media advertising and associated production costs are expensed as incurred and amounted to approximately $12.0 million, $12.3 million and $11.3 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
We lease broadcast towers, transmitter sites and office space throughout the United States. We review each lease agreement upon inception to determine the appropriate classification of the lease as a capital lease or operating lease based on the factors listed in FASB ASC Topic 840 Leases. Our current lease terms generally range from one to twenty-five years with rent expense recorded on a straight-line basis for financial reporting purposes. Where leases include rent holidays, rent escalations, rent concessions and leasehold improvement incentives, the value of these incentives are amortized over the lease term including anticipated renewal periods. Rent expense, exclusive of intercompany leases eliminated during consolidation, was $15.5 million, $15.3 million and $14.8 million, respectively, for each of the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.
Deferred rental revenue was $4.3 million as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.
We may construct or otherwise invest in leasehold improvements to properties. The costs of these leasehold improvements are capitalized and depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the improvement or the lease term including anticipated renewal periods.
Partial Self-Insurance on Employee Health Plan
We provide health insurance benefits to eligible employees under a self-insured plan whereby we pay actual medical claims subject to certain stop loss limits. We record self-insurance liabilities based on actual claims filed and an estimate of those claims incurred but not reported. Our estimates are based on historical data and probabilities. Any projection of losses concerning our liability is subject to a high degree of variability. Among the causes of this variability are unpredictable external factors such as future inflation rates, changes in severity, benefit level changes, medical costs and claim settlement patterns. Should the actual amount of claims increase or decrease beyond what was anticipated, we may adjust our future reserves. Our self-insurance liability was $0.7 million and $0.8 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. While we had an unusually high level of claims in the third quarter of 2016 due to a larger than normal number of expensive claims, we believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
The following table presents the changes in our partial self-insurance reserves.
We are exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates. We actively monitor these fluctuations and may use derivative instruments primarily for the purpose of reducing the impact of changing interest rates on our variable rate debt and to reduce the impact of changing fair market values on our fixed rate debt. In accordance with our risk management strategy, we may use derivative instruments only for the purpose of managing risk associated with an asset, liability, committed transaction, or probable forecasted transaction that is identified by management. Our use of derivative instruments may result in short-term gains or losses that may increase the volatility of our earnings.
Under FASB ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, the effective portion of the gain or loss on a derivative instrument designated and qualifying as a cash flow hedging instrument shall be reported as a component of other comprehensive income (outside earnings) and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged forecasted transaction affects earnings. The remaining gain or loss on the derivative instrument, if any, shall be recognized currently in earnings.
On March 27, 2013, we entered into an interest rate swap agreement with Wells Fargo that began on March 28, 2014 with a notional principal amount of $150.0 million. The agreement was entered to offset risks associated with the variable interest rate on the Term Loan B. Payments on the swap were due on a quarterly basis with a LIBOR floor of 0.625%. The swap was to expire on March 28, 2019 at a fixed rate of 1.645%. The interest rate swap agreement was not designated as a cash flow hedge, and as a result, all changes in the fair value were recognized in the current period statement of operations rather than through other comprehensive income. On May 19, 2017, we paid $0.8 million to terminate the interest rate swap. As of December 31, 2017, we did not have any outstanding derivative instruments.
On May 19, 2017, we entered into a new senior credit facility, which is an asset-based revolving credit facility (“ABL Facility”). The ABL Facility is a five-year $30.0 million (subject to borrowing base) revolving credit facility maturing on May 19, 2022. Amounts outstanding under the ABL Facility bear interest at a rate based on LIBOR plus a spread of 1.50% to 2.0% per annum based on a pricing grid depending on the average available amount for the most recently ended quarter or at the Base Rate (as defined in the Credit Agreement) plus a spread of 0.50% to 1.0% per annum based on a pricing grid depending on the average available amount for the most recently ended quarter. Additionally, we pay a commitment fee on the unused balance of 0.25% to 0.375% per year. If an event of default occurs, the interest rate may increase by 2.00% per annum. Amounts outstanding under the ABL Facility may be paid and then re-borrowed at our discretion without penalty or premium.
Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
As of December 31, 2017, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, trade accounts receivables, accounts payable, accrued expenses and accrued interest approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of such instruments. The carrying value of the ABL approximates fair value as the related interest rates approximate rates currently available to the company. The carrying amount of the Notes at December 31, 2017 was $255.0 million, which approximated the fair value based on the prevailing interest rates and trading activity of our Notes. See Note 12 Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures.
Long-term Debt and Debt Covenant Compliance
Our classification of outstanding borrowings on our Notes as long-term debt on our balance sheet is based on our assessment that, under the Indenture and after considering our projected operating results and cash flows for the coming year, no principal payments are required to be made within the next twelve months. The Notes have a term of seven years, maturing on June 1, 2024. We may redeem the Notes, in whole or in part, at any time on or after June 1, 2020 at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes plus a “make-whole” premium as of, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date. At any time on or after June 1, 2020, we may redeem some or all of the Notes at the redemption prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount to be redeemed) set forth in the Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date. In addition, we may redeem up to 35% of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes before June 1, 2020 with the net cash proceeds from certain equity offerings at a redemption price of 106.75% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the redemption date. We may also redeem up to 10% of the aggregate original principal amount of the Notes per twelve month period before June 1, 2020 at a redemption price of 103% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the redemption date.
We report outstanding balances on the ABL Facility as short-term regardless of the maturity date based on use of the ABL Facility to fund ordinary and customary operating cash needs with frequent repayments.
Our projections of operating results and cash flows for the coming year are estimates dependent upon a number of factors including but not limited to developments in the markets in which we are operating in and varying economic and political factors. Accordingly, these projections are inherently uncertain and our actual results could differ from these estimates.
Deferred Financing Costs
We adopted ASU 2015-03, as amended by ASU 2015-15, as of the effective date of January 1, 2016. Debt issue costs are being amortized to non-cash interest expense over the life of the Term Loan B using the effective interest method. We chose to continue presentation of debt issue costs associated with our Revolver as an asset in accordance with ASU 2015-15. We have retrospectively accounted for the implementation of ASU 2015-03 and ASU 2015-15 as a change in accounting principle. Costs of the Revolver are being amortized to non-cash interest expense over the five year life of the Revolver using the effective interest method based on an imputed interest rate of 4.58%.
On May 19, 2017, we closed on a private offering of $255.0 million aggregate principal amount of 6.75% senior secured notes due 2024 (the “Notes”) and concurrently entered into a five-year $30.0 million senior secured asset-based revolving credit facility, which includes a $5.0 million subfacility for standby letters of credit and a $7.5 million subfacility for swingline loans (“ABL Facility”) due May 19, 2022. The net proceeds from the offering of the Notes, together with borrowings under the ABL Facility, were used to repay outstanding borrowings, including accrued and unpaid interest, on our previously existing senior credit facilities consisting of a term loan (“Term Loan B”) and a revolving credit facility of $25.0 million (“Revolver”), and to pay fees and expenses incurred in connection with the Notes offering and the ABL Facility (collectively, the “Refinancing”).
We incurred debt issuance costs of $6.3 million that were recorded as a reduction of the Note proceeds that are being amortized to non-cash interest expense over the life of the Notes using the effective interest method. We incurred debt issue costs of $0.7 million that were recorded as an asset and are being amortized to non-cash interest expense over the term of the ABL Facility using the effective interest method. See Note 11 Long-Term Debt.
Income Tax Valuation Allowances (Deferred Taxes)
We account for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740 Income Taxes. In preparing our consolidated financial statements, we estimate our income tax liability in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate by estimating our actual current tax exposure and assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and financial statement purposes. We calculate our current and deferred tax provisions based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed during the subsequent year. Adjustments based on filed returns are generally recorded in the period when the tax returns are filed and the tax implications are known. Tax law and rate changes are reflected in the income tax provision in the period in which such changes are enacted.
We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. We consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, including historical levels of income, expectations and risks associated with estimates of future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies in assessing the need for a valuation allowance. In the event we were to determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the deferred tax assets would be charged to earnings in the period in which we make such a determination. Likewise, if we later determine that it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets would be realized, we would reverse the applicable portion of the previously provided valuation allowance.
For financial reporting purposes, we recorded a valuation allowance of $6.2 million as of December 31, 2017 to offset $6.0 million of the deferred tax assets related to the state net operating loss carryforwards and $0.2 million associated with asset impairments. During the third quarter of 2016, we identified an error in our estimated valuation allowance for certain deferred tax assets. For financial reporting purposes, we recorded a valuation allowance of $4.5 million as of December 31, 2016 to offset $4.2 million of the deferred tax assets related to the state net operating loss carryforwards and $0.3 million associated with asset impairments. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Act”) was signed into law making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code. Changes include, but are not limited to, a corporate tax rate decrease from 35% to 21% effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. We have calculated our best estimate of the impact of the Act in our year end income tax provision in accordance with our understanding of the Act and guidance available as of the date of this filing.
The SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”) to address the application of US GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Act. SAB 118 summarizes a three-step process to be applied at each reporting period to account for and qualitatively disclose: (1) the effects of the change in tax law for which accounting is complete; (2) provisional amounts (or adjustments to provisional amounts) for the effects of the tax law where accounting is not complete, but that a reasonable estimate has been determined; and (3) a reasonable estimate cannot yet be made and therefore taxes are reflected in accordance with law prior to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
Amounts recorded where we consider accounting to be complete for the year ended December 31, 2017 principally relate to the reduction in the U.S. corporate income tax rate to 21%, which resulted in the recording of an income tax benefit of $23.0 million to remeasure deferred taxes liabilities associated primarily with intangible assets that are deemed to reverse at the new 21% tax rate.
Other significant provisions that are not yet effective but may impact income taxes in future years include include limitations on the current deductibility of net interest expense, limitation of net operating losses generated after fiscal 2018 to 80% of taxable income, acceleration of tax revenue recognition and additional limitation on executive compensation.
Income Taxes and Uncertain Tax Positions
We are subject to audit and review by various taxing jurisdictions. We may recognize liabilities on our financial statements for positions taken on uncertain tax positions. When tax returns are filed, it is highly certain that some positions taken would be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, while others may be subject to uncertainty about the merits of the position taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. The benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, we believe it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Such positions are deemed to be unrecognized tax benefits and a corresponding liability is established on the balance sheet. It is inherently difficult and subjective to estimate such amounts, as this requires us to make estimates based on the various possible outcomes.
We review and reevaluate uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. Changes in assumptions may result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision. During the year ended December 31, 2017, we did not have any material unrecognized tax benefits recorded. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we recognized a net decrease of $0.1 million in liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions. Accordingly, we have no liabilities for uncertain tax positions recorded at December 31, 2016. The $0.1 million balance at December 31, 2015 included approximately $21,000 of accrued interest, net of federal income tax benefits, and $6,000 for the related penalties previously recorded in income tax expense. Our evaluation was performed for all tax years that remain subject to examination, which range from 2013 through 2016. There are currently no tax examinations in process. In August 2017, we received a letter notifying us that the City of New York is initiating an audit of our tax returns for years 2013 and 2014. As of fourth quarter, we are still in the early stages of the audit. We do not anticipate the outcome to be material nor significant.
Effective Tax Rate
Our provision for income tax as a percentage of operating income before taxes, or our effective tax rate, may be impacted by:
Our annual effective tax rate may also be materially impacted by tax expense associated with non-amortizable assets such as broadcast licenses and goodwill as well as changes in the deferred tax valuation allowance. An impairment loss for financial statement purposes will result in an income tax benefit during the period incurred as the amortization of broadcasting licenses and goodwill is deductible for income tax purposes.
Reserves for Royalty Advances
Royalties due to book authors are paid in advance and capitalized. Royalties are expensed as the related book revenues are earned or when we determine that future recovery of the royalty is not likely. We reviewed historical data associated with royalty advances, earnings and recoverability based on actual results of Regnery Publishing. Historically, the longer the unearned portion of an advance remains outstanding, the less likely it is that we will recover the advance through the sale of the book. We apply this historical experience to outstanding royalty advances to estimate the likelihood of recovery. A provision was established to expense the balance of any unearned advance which we believe is not recoverable. Our analysis also considers other discrete factors, such as death of an author, any decision to not pursue publication of a title, poor market demand or other relevant factors. We have not modified our estimate methodology and we have not historically recognized significant losses from changes in our estimates. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in various legal proceedings, lawsuits, arbitration and other claims which are complex in nature and have outcomes that are difficult to predict. Consequently, we are unable to ascertain the ultimate aggregate amount of monetary liability or the financial impact with respect to these matters.
We record contingency reserves to the extent we conclude that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the related loss can be reasonably estimated. The establishment of the reserve is based on a review of all relevant factors, the advice of legal counsel, and the subjective judgment of management. The reserves we have recorded to date have not been material to our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable and that our reserves are accurately reflected.
While we believe that the final resolution of any known maters, individually and in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect upon our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows, it is possible that we could incur additional losses. We maintain insurance that may provide coverage for such matters. Future claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could have a material adverse effect upon our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows, including losses due to costly litigation and losses due to matters that require significant amounts of management time that can result in the diversion of significant operational resources. See Note 14 Commitments and Contingencies.
(Gain) Loss on the Sale or Disposal of Assets
We record gains or losses on the sale or disposal of assets equal to the proceeds, if any, as compared to the net book value. Exchange transactions are accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 845 Non-Monetary Transactions. During the year ended December 31, 2017, we recorded a $3.9 million pre-tax loss, including a $4.7 million estimated loss for the pending sale of WQVN-AM (formerly WKAT-AM) in Miami, Florida, a $77,000 loss related to transmitter equipment in Dallas, Texas that was no longer in use and a $2,000 net loss for equipment damaged in our Tampa, Florida market as a result of hurricane Irma in September 2017 that was offset by a $0.5 million gain from the sale of a former transmitter site in our Dallas, Texas market, a $0.4 million gain on the sale of the WSPZ-AM tower site, and a $16,000 net gain from disposals within our print magazine segment.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, we recorded a $1.9 million pre-tax gain which included a $1.9 million gain on the sale of our Miami tower site and a $0.7 million gain from a land easement in our South Carolina market offset by a $0.4 million charge associated with leasehold improvements that were abandoned during the relocation of our offices in Washington D.C. market and various fixed asset disposals.
During the year ended December 31, 2015, we recorded a $0.2 million pre-tax loss that included a $0.2 million charge associated with the relocation of our office and studio in our Seattle, Washington market offset by proceeds from various fixed asset and equipment disposals.
Basic and Diluted Net Earnings Per Share
Basic net earnings per share has been computed using the weighted average number of Class A and Class B shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period plus the dilutive effects of stock options.
Options to purchase 1,428,462, 1,720,000 and 1,581,123 shares of Class A common stock were outstanding at December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. Diluted weighted average shares outstanding exclude outstanding stock options whose exercise price is in excess of the average price of the company’s stock price. These options are excluded from the respective computations of diluted net income or loss per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive. The number of anti-dilutive shares as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 was 814,556, 795,378 and 589,437, respectively.
The following table sets forth the shares used to compute basic and diluted net earnings per share for the periods indicated:
We have three operating segments: (1) Broadcast, (2) Digital Media, and (3) Publishing, which also qualify as reportable segments. Our operating segments reflect how our chief operating decision makers, which we define as a collective group of senior executives, assesses the performance of each operating segment and determines the appropriate allocations of resources to each segment. We continually review our operating segment classifications to align with operational changes in our business and may make changes as necessary.
We measure and evaluate our operating segments based on operating income and operating expenses that do not include allocations of costs related to corporate functions, such as accounting and finance, human resources, legal, tax and treasury, which are reported as unallocated corporate expenses in our consolidated statements of operations included in this annual report on Form 10-K. We also exclude costs such as amortization, depreciation, taxes and interest expense.
During the third quarter of 2016, we reclassed Salem Consumer Products, our e-commerce business that sells books, DVD’s and editorial content developed by our on-air personalities, from our Digital Media segment to our Broadcast segment. This reclassification was to consolidate all revenue and expenses generated by on-air hosts, which includes broadcast programs and e-commerce product sales to better assess the financial performance of each network program. This reclassification did not impact the reporting units used to test non-amortizable assets for impairment. All prior periods presented are updated to reflect this new composition of our operating segments. Refer to Note 20 Segment Data in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Variable Interest Entities
We may enter into agreements or investments with other entities that could qualify as variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 810 Consolidation. A VIE is consolidated in the financial statements if we are deemed to be the primary beneficiary. The primary beneficiary is the entity that holds the majority of the beneficial interests in the VIE, either explicitly or implicitly. A VIE is an entity for which the primary beneficiary’s interest in the entity can change with variations in factors other than the amount of investment in the entity. We perform our evaluation for VIE’s upon entry into the agreement or investment. We re-evaluate the VIE when or if events occur that could change the status of the VIE.
We may enter into lease arrangements with entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties. We believe that the requirements of FASB ASC Topic 810 do not apply to these entities because the lease arrangements do not contain explicit guarantees of the residual value of the real estate, do not contain purchase options or similar provisions and the leases are at terms that do not vary materially from leases that would have been available with unaffiliated parties. Additionally, we do not have an equity interest in the entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties and we do not guarantee debt of the entities controlled by our principal stockholders or other related parties.
We also enter into Local Marketing Agreements (“LMAs”) or Time Brokerage Agreements (“TBAs”) contemporaneously with entering into an Asset Purchase Agreement (“APA”) to acquire or sell a radio station. Typically, both LMAs and TBAs are contractual agreements under which the station owner/licensee makes airtime available to a programmer/licensee in exchange for a fee and reimbursement of certain expenses. LMAs and TBAs are subject to compliance with the antitrust laws and the communications laws, including the requirement that the licensee must maintain independent control over the station and, in particular, its personnel, programming, and finances. The FCC has held that such agreements do not violate the communications laws as long as the licensee of the station receiving programming from another station maintains ultimate responsibility for, and control over, station operations and otherwise ensures compliance with the communications laws.
The requirements of FASB ASC Topic 810 may apply to entities under LMAs or TBAs, depending on the facts and circumstances related to each transaction. As of December 31, 2017, we did not have implicit or explicit arrangements that required consolidation under the guidance in FASB ASC Topic 810.
Concentrations of Business Risks
We derive a substantial part of our total revenues from the sale of advertising. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, 36.8%, 38.3% and 39.2% of our total broadcast revenues, respectively, were generated from the sale of broadcast advertising. We are particularly dependent on revenue from stations in the Los Angeles and Dallas markets, which generated 15.4% and 19.3% for the year ended December 31, 2017, 15.1% and 20.8% for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 14.7% and 24.5% for the year ended December 31, 2015. Because substantial portions of our revenues are derived from local advertisers in these key markets, our ability to generate revenues in those markets could be adversely affected by local or regional economic downturns.
Concentrations of Credit Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents; trade accounts receivable and derivative instruments. We place our cash and cash equivalents with high quality financial institutions. Such balances may be in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured limits. To manage the related credit exposure, we continually monitor the credit worthiness of the financial institutions where we have deposits. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivable are limited due to the wide variety of customers and markets in which we provide services, as well as the dispersion of our operations across many geographic areas. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers, but generally do not require collateral to support customer receivables. We establish an allowance for doubtful accounts based on various factors including the credit risk of specific customers, age of receivables outstanding, historical trends, economic conditions and other information. Historically, our bad debt expense has been within management’s expectations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Significant areas for which management uses estimates include:
These estimates require the use of judgment as future events and the effect of these events cannot be predicted with certainty. The estimates will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired and as more information is obtained. We evaluate and update our assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and we may consult outside experts to assist as considered necessary.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation. These include the reclassification of land held for sale from current assets to long-term assets based on the APA term that exceeds twelve months.
During the third quarter of 2016, we identified an error in our valuation allowance for certain deferred tax assets. We recorded an adjustment to increase our estimated deferred tax valuation allowance by $1.6 million for a portion of the deferred tax assets related to state net operating loss carryforwards that we determined were not more likely than not to be realized.
In evaluating the adjustment, we referred to the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) No. 99, including SAB Topic 1.M, which provides guidance on the assessment of materiality and states that “the omission or misstatement of an item in a financial report is material if, in the light of surrounding circumstances, the magnitude of the item is such that it is probable that the judgment of a reasonable person relying upon the report would have been changed or influenced by the inclusion or correction of the item.” We also referred to SAB 108 for guidance on considering the effects of prior year misstatements when quantifying misstatements in current year financial statements and the assessment of materiality.
Our analysis of the materiality of the adjustment was performed by reviewing quantitative and qualitative factors. We determined based on this analysis that the adjustment was not material to the current period and any prior periods.
Revision of Prior Period Consolidated Financial Statements
We identified an adjustment related to the accounting for deferred taxes associated with non-qualified stock options that were voluntarily surrendered or forfeited. These forfeitures should have been adjusted to the deferred tax assets with a corresponding entry to Additional Paid In Capital (“APIC”) or retained earnings if there was not a sufficient amount of excess tax benefits within APIC (“pool”) to absorb.
The impact primarily resulted from a voluntary surrender of 1,741,854 options in the third quarter of 2008 that most senior executives voluntarily participated in. The voluntary surrender was not accompanied by a concurrent grant of (or offer to grant) a replacement award or other valuable consideration. The voluntary surrender was accounted for as a repurchase for no consideration. The deferred tax asset associated with these options should have offset the APIC pool to the extent available, with the excess recorded as deferred tax expense.
In order to assess materiality with respect to the adjustments, we considered SAB 99, Materiality and SAB 108, Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements when Quantifying Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements, and determined that the impact of the adjustments on prior period consolidated financial statements was immaterial.
The impact of the adjustments on the Consolidated Financial Statements for each of the years presented is as follows:
In considering if we should amend previously filed 2016 Form 10-K and 2017 Form 10-Q’s, our evaluation of SAB 99 considered that the aggregate impact of the adjustment did not impact our net income or loss before income taxes, was not material to our operating results, had no impact on operating cash flows, and had an insignificant impact on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. In aggregate, we do not believe it is probable that the views of a reasonable investor would have changed by this adjustment in each of the consolidated financial statements to warrant an amendment. Accordingly, the adjustment was made to the December 31, 2016 Consolidated Balance Sheet and the December 31, 2014 balances in the Consolidated Statement of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity as described above using the SAB 108 approach. The cumulative adjustment was recorded as a decrease of $2.7 million in deferred tax assets, which is presented as an increase in deferred tax liabilities, with a corresponding decrease in APIC of $1.2 million and a decrease in retained earnings of $1.5 million.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Changes to accounting principles are established by the FASB in the form of Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) to the FASB’s Codification. We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. Described below are ASUs that are not yet effective, but may be applicable to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined to not be applicable to our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-03, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Financial Instruments-Overall (Subtopic 825-10). The amendments in ASU 2018-03 expand the strategies that qualify for hedge accounting and simplify the application of hedge accounting in certain situations. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after June 15, 2018. We do not expect the adoption of this accounting standard to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220) Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. ASU 2018-02 allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“The Act”). Consequently, the amendments eliminate the stranded tax effects resulting from the Act to improve the usefulness of information reported to financial statement users. However, because the amendments only relate to the reclassification of the income tax effects of the Act, the underlying guidance that requires that the effect of a change in tax laws or rates be included in income from continuing operations is not affected. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The standard allows for early adoption, but we have not yet made that determination. We do not expect that the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our financial statements.
In January 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-01, Leases (Topic 842) Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842. ASU 2018-01 provides an optional transition practical expedient to not evaluate under Topic 842 existing or expired land easements that were not previously accounted for as leases under the current leases guidance in Topic 840. ASU 2018-01 is effective with ASU 2016-02 for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. . We do not expect that the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our financial statements.
In December 2017, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued guidance under Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“SAB 118”) directing taxpayers to consider the impact of the U.S. legislation as “provisional” when it does not have the necessary information available, prepared or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete its accounting for the change in tax law. As of December 31, 2017, we have not yet completed accounting for all of the tax effects of the enactment of the Act; however, we have made reasonable estimates of the effects on our existing deferred tax balances and one-time transition tax.
In November 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-14, Income Statement Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220), Revenue Recognition (Topic 605), and Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). ASU 2017-14 supersedes various SEC paragraphs and amends an SEC paragraph pursuant to the issuance of Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 116. We do not expect these updates to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In September 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-13, Revenue Recognition (Topic 605), Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), Leases (Topic 840), and Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2017-13 provides additional clarification including the additional of SEC paragraphs to the new revenue and leases sections of the Codification. We do not expect these clarifications to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging: Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, which improves the financial reporting of hedging relationships to better align risk management activities in financial statements and make certain targeted improvements to simplify the application of the hedge accounting guidance in current GAAP. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for any interim and annual financial statements that have not yet been issued. We do not expect the adoption of this accounting standard to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Scope of Modification Accounting, which clarifies when to account for a change in the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award as a modification. ASU 2017-09 requires modification accounting only if the fair value, the vesting conditions, or the classification of the award (as equity or liability) changes as a result of the change in terms or conditions. ASU 2017-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this accounting standard to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-08, Receivables Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs (Subtopic 310-20), Premium on Purchased Callable Debt Securities, which amends the amortization period for certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium to a shorter period based on the earliest call date. ASU 2017-08 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this accounting standard to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In February 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-05, Other Income Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets (Topic 610-20), which clarifies the scope and application of ASC Topic 610-20 on accounting for the sale or transfer of nonfinancial assets, that is an asset with physical value such as real estate, equipment, intangibles or similar property. ASU 2017-05 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this accounting standard to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations Clarifying the Definition of a Business, which clarifies the definition of a business for determining whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. ASU 2017-01 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-01 to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statements of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, which provides guidance on the presentation of restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-18 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-18 to have a material impact on our cash flows or presentation thereof.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16 Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory” which modifies existing guidance for the accounting for income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers of assets. This ASU requires entities to immediately recognize the tax consequences on intercompany asset transfers (excluding inventory) at the transaction date, rather than deferring the tax consequences under current GAAP. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim reports within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted only as of the first quarter of a fiscal year. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-16 to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which clarifies how entities should classify certain cash receipts and cash payments on the statement of cash flows with the objective of reducing diversity in practice related to eight specific types of transactions. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-15 to have a material impact on our financial cash flows or presentation thereof.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, which changes the impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. For trade and other receivables, held-to-maturity debt securities, loans and other instruments, entities will be required to use a new forward-looking “expected loss” model that will replace today’s “incurred loss” model and generally will result in the earlier recognition of allowances for losses. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, entities will measure credit losses in a manner similar to current practice, except that the losses will be recognized as an allowance. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We have not yet evaluated the impact of the adoption of this accounting standard on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires that lessees recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with lease terms greater than twelve months in the balance sheet. ASU 2016-02 requires additional disclosures including the significant judgments made by management to provide insight into the revenue and expense to be recognized from existing contracts and the timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We have not yet determined the dollar impact of recording operating leases on our statement of financial position. The adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have a material impact on our financial position and the presentation thereof. Our existing credit facility stipulates that our covenants are based on GAAP as of the agreement date. Therefore, the material impact of recording right-to-use assets and lease liabilities on our statement of financial position is not expected to impact the compliance status for any covenant.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, which provides updated guidance that enhances the reporting model for financial instruments, including amendments, to address aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. With the exception of the early application guidance applicable to certain entities, early adoption of the amendments is not permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this accounting standard to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance in August 2015, March 2016, April 2016, May 2016, December 2016, and September 2017 within ASU 2015-14, ASU 2016-08, ASU 2016-10, ASU 2016-12, and ASU 2016-20 respectively (ASU 2014-09, ASU 2015-14, ASU 2016-08, ASU 2016-10, ASU 2016-12, ASU 2016-20 and ASU 2017-13 collectively, “Topic 606”). Topic 606 supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP. The core principle of Topic 606 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received for those goods or services. Topic 606 defines a five-step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, it is possible more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing GAAP. These estimates include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation, among others. We adopted the new guidance on January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method. Under this method, the effect of any change resulting from the new guidance will be recognized in retained earnings as of the date of initial application; prior periods will not be restated. Based on further progress with our ASC 606 implementation plan, we do not expect the new guidance to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof. However, additional disclosures will be included in future reporting periods in accordance with requirements of the new guidance.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef